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A E Andreazzi, D X Scomparin, F P Mesquita, S L Balbo, C Gravena, J C De Oliveira, W Rinaldi, R M G Garcia, S Grassiolli and P C F Mathias

utilize different signaling pathways and both allow activation of glucose transport. The above may explain why human beings and experimental animals with insulin resistance may increase muscle glucose transport in response to an acute bout of exercise

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Yu Wu, Tingting Wu, Jun Wu, Lei Zhao, Qing Li, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Stephen H Powis, Yaxi Chen and Xiong Z Ruan

impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes ( Xiang et al . 2010 a ). Obesity, insulin resistance, and T2DM are closely associated with chronic inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production, increased acute-phase reactants and other mediators, and

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Anaies Nazarians-Armavil, Jennifer A Chalmers, Claire B Lee, Wenqing Ye and Denise D Belsham

with central insulin resistance, or the inability of insulin to exert its appropriate effects on key hypothalamic neuronal populations ( Konner & Bruning 2012 ). It is now becoming accepted that hormone resistance does not affect all neurons uniformly

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Victor Wong, Linda Szeto, Kristine Uffelman, I George Fantus and Gary F Lewis

Introduction Insulin resistance is a major pathogenic factor for type-2 diabetes mellitus and is associated with a cluster of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors ( Reaven 1988 ). These risk factors include, but are

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M K Piya, P G McTernan and S Kumar

and insulin resistance, as described later in this review. While hyperglycaemia can induce oxidative stress ( Dandona et al . 2007 ), studies have shown that acute hyperglycaemia can increase pro-inflammatory adipokines such as IL6 and TNFα levels in

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Holly M Johnson, Erin Stanfield, Grace J Campbell, Erica E Eberl, Gregory J Cooney and Kim S Bell-Anderson

A Begovatz P Irmler M Kupriyanova Y Nowotny B Nowotny P Herder C Barosa C , et al . 2017 Acute dietary fat intake initiates alterations in energy metabolism and insulin resistance . Journal of Clinical Investigation 127 695 – 708 . ( https

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Corinne Caillaud, Mie Mechta, Heidi Ainge, Andreas N Madsen, Patricia Ruell, Emilie Mas, Catherine Bisbal, Jacques Mercier, Stephen Twigg, Trevor A Mori, David Simar and Romain Barrès

al . 2013 ). In this study, we investigated the effect of both acute and chronic EPO treatment on whole-body glucose metabolism and activation of the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle. We found that EPO ameliorates diet-induced glucose

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May Faraj, Genevieve Beauregard, Emmanuelle Loizon, Marthe Moldes, Karine Clément, Youssef Tahiri, Katherine Cianflone, Hubert Vidal and Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret

serum leptin; (2) acute hyperinsulinemia simultaneously induces mRNA levels of adiponutrin, HKII, and PI3K, increases leptin concentration, and decreases adiponectin concentration; (3) insulin-stimulated adiponutrin expression is highly correlated to

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Wanpitak Pongkan, Hiranya Pintana, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kredphoo, Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn and Nipon Chattipakorn

-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause not only obesity but also insulin resistance, a state in which the insulin receptors do not respond to insulin properly leading to impaired glycemic control ( Pratchayasakul et al . 2011 ). The main causes of this

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Donato A Rivas, Ben B Yaspelkis III, John A Hawley and Sarah J Lessard

resistance, Miller et al . (2008) observed increased mTOR activation in the skeletal muscle of ob/ob mice ( Miller et al . 2008 ). However, the authors did not observe improvements in whole-body insulin or glucose tolerance after acute treatment with