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Vichit Supornsilchai, Olle Söder and Konstantin Svechnikov

involved in mediating hypothalamic responses to different types of stress. Various forms of psychological stress increased hypothalamic IL-1β levels and enhanced circulating level of IL-1β inducing release of the CRF and activation of the HPA axis ( Nguyen

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Trassanee Chatmethakul and Robert D Roghair

–fetal metabolic or psychological stress, shown to exert detrimental effects on cardiovascular and neuronal development predisposing to hypertension later in life ( Padbury et al. 1995 , Dodic et al. 1998 ). Developmental origins and IUGR

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John-Paul Fuller-Jackson and Belinda A Henry

, HR individuals display preference for foods of high fat and sugar in response to psychological stress ( Tomiyama et al . 2011 ). Similarly, in ewes, baseline food intake is similar in LR and HR, but HR eat more following either psychosocial (barking

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Ke Cui, Giamal N Luheshi and Patricia Boksa

) ( Liao et al . 1995 , Sorrells & Sapolsky 2007 , Frank et al . 2010 ). GC and ACTH responses to acute physical and psychological stressors are known to be attenuated in the pregnant rat at term (embryonic day 21, E21), compared to responses in

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Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Harris and George R Pope

some acute stressors including LPS challenge (an immune stressor), insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (a metabolic stressor) and forced swim (a physical/psychological stressor) ( Newson et al . 2013 ). These studies suggest that other peptides cannot

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Kazunori Kageyama, Komaki Hanada, Yasumasa Iwasaki, Satoru Sakihara, Takeshi Nigawara, John Kasckow and Toshihiro Suda

, Shurin MR, DePaoli M & Rabin BS 1993 Exposure to physical and psychological stressors elevates plasma interleukin 6: relationship to the activation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Endocrinology 133 2523 –2530.

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James M Evans, Laura S Morris and Julian R Marchesi

Prevention of gut leakiness by a probiotic treatment leads to attenuated HPA response to an acute psychological stress in rats . Psychoneuroendocrinology 37 1885 – 1895 . ( doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.03.024 ) Asano Y Hiramoto T Nishino R Aiba Y

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William H James

-selective spontaneous fetal wastage. Evidence has been put forward against these conclusions. It may readily be conceded that some sex ratio variation is due to sex-selective foetal and embryonic wastage (as, e.g. with glucose ( Gutierrez-Adan 2001 ) and psychological

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C García-Luna, P Soberanes-Chávez and P de Gortari

regulates NPY and POMC neurons projecting to the lateral hypothalamic area . Neuron 23 775 – 786 . ( doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(01)80035-0 ) Epel ES 2009 Psychological and metabolic stress: a recipe for accelerated cellular aging? Hormones 8

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Yingxin Xian, Zonglan Chen, Hongrong Deng, Mengyin Cai, Hua Liang, Wen Xu, Jianping Weng and Fen Xu

the cellular and molecular level ( Lee & Jun 2016 ). A series of studies conducted in patients with obesity showed that exenatide suppressed oxidative stress and the expression of inflammatory mediators including monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCP