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Rana Samadfam, Malaika Awori, Agnes Bénardeau, Frieder Bauss, Elena Sebokova, Matthew Wright and Susan Y Smith

Introduction Bone is a highly specialized and dynamic tissue that undergoes constant remodeling by balancing bone formation and resorption ( Clarke 2008 , Eriksen 2010 ), processes that are regulated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts respectively

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David J Mellis, Cecile Itzstein, Miep H Helfrich and Julie C Crockett

developing complex bone diseases such as osteoporosis. In this review, we describe the process of osteoclast formation and resorption, focusing specifically on some of the key signalling pathways involved. This review is not exhaustive; we have not touched on

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Richard Eastell

the onset of menarche, the markers all decline despite the high levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Many studies have investigated markers of bone formation and resorption during childhood (Table 1 ). The changes in bone turnover with age

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E Mrak, I Villa, R Lanzi, M Losa, F Guidobono and A Rubinacci

patients, who have chronic systemic GH and IGF-I excess, are characterized by increased bone turnover and biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption that correlate with circulating GH and IGF-I levels, suggesting the activation of both

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Guillaume Mabilleau, Aleksandra Mieczkowska, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt and Daniel Chappard

al . 2008 ). This unexpected phenotype indicated a possible inhibitory action (direct or indirect) of calcitonin on bone formation without affecting bone resorption. Therefore, the contributing effect of increased circulating calcitonin to bone

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Guillaume Mabilleau, Marie Pereira and Chantal Chenu

reflect those in human bone tissue. Bone turnover markers and circulating sclerostin levels Multiple studies in humans have found that serum markers of bone formation and resorption are reduced in diabetic individuals vs non-diabetic controls

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Katherine A Staines, Vicky E MacRae and Colin Farquharson

, Raynal et al . 1996 , Malaval et al . 2008 , Valverde et al . 2008 ). This has been further examined in BSP transgenic mice in which an uncoupling of bone formation and resorption resulted in an osteopenia-like phenotype ( Valverde et al . 2008

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Urszula T Iwaniec and Russell T Turner

alterations in bone-regulating hormones ( Yu 2014 ). The bone loss associated with weight loss can involve decreased bone formation and/or increased bone resorption ( Shapses & Riedt 2006 , Redman et al . 2008 , Rector et al . 2009 ). Studies performed

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Colin Farquharson

changes in bone were a result of impaired bone formation, whilst resorption was normal. The reduced formation may be a consequence of altered signalling pathways such as the GH/IGF1 axis that is known to be anabolic to the skeleton. These changes resemble

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Koichiro Komatsu, Akemi Shimada, Tatsuya Shibata, Satoshi Wada, Hisashi Ideno, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Norio Amizuka, Masaki Noda and Akira Nifuji

), suggesting that cellular uptake of BPs is a prerequisite for their effects on osteoclastic bone resorption. Molecular analysis of their effect on bone resorption revealed that N-BPs such as ALN, risedronate, and zoledronate inhibit farnesyl diphosphate