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Kok Lim Kua, Shanming Hu, Chunlin Wang, Jianrong Yao, Diana Dang, Alexander B Sawatzke, Jeffrey L Segar, Kai Wang and Andrew W Norris

Introduction Offspring born from pregnancy complicated by diabetes have a lifelong increased risk of insulin resistance. In humans, such offspring have a 4- to 8-fold higher risk, beyond genetic risk, to develop type 2 diabetes, metabolic

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M A Hyatt, G S Gopalakrishnan, J Bispham, S Gentili, I C McMillen, S M Rhind, M T Rae, C E Kyle, A N Brooks, C Jones, H Budge, D Walker, T Stephenson and M E Symonds

this occurs in the adult offspring as a consequence of previous exposure to maternal nutrient restriction. Other growth factors important in regulating liver growth include the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; Duncan et al. 2004 ) and its receptor c

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Els Willems, Astrid Koppenol, Bart De Ketelaere, Yufeng Wang, Lies Franssens, Johan Buyse, Eddy Decuypere and Nadia Everaert

this model, offspring exhibited growth retardation ( Shepherd et al . 1997 ) and alterations in body composition. It is known that during periods of poor maternal nutrition, the fetus adapts by diverting nutrients to critical organs such as the brain

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Parsanathan Rajesh and Karundevi Balasubramanian

negative influence on glucose homoeostasis. However, the possible effects of DEHP exposure during the critical period of development on glucose homoeostasis of the F 1 offspring have not been clarified so far. Based on these observations, it is suggested

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Miguel A Velazquez, Tom P Fleming and Adam J Watkins

the periconceptional period covering gamete maturation and early embryogenesis with key developmental stages and events identified, shown both in vivo and during ART, and with long-term risks for offspring health from adverse exposures listed

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Caitlin S Wyrwoll, Peter J Mark, Trevor A Mori and Brendan J Waddell

restriction induced by uterine artery ligation in rats produces glucose-intolerant offspring with impaired insulin signaling and altered hepatic gluconeogenesis ( Vuguin et al . 2004 ). Moreover, treatment of pregnant mothers with either dexamethasone (Dex

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Yuan Ni, Dan Xu, Feng Lv, Yang Wan, Guanlan Fan, Wen Zou, Yunxi Chen, Linguo Pei, Jing Yang and Hui Wang

-acetyl-para-aminophenol during pregnancy resulted in an irregular oestrous cycle, reduction of primordial follicles, premature absence of the corpus luteum (CL) and reduced fertility among female offspring ( Arendrup et al. 2018 ). Female offspring rats of maternal

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M J Devlin, C Grasemann, A M Cloutier, L Louis, C Alm, M R Palmert and M L Bouxsein

developmental programming of bone mass acquisition and/or of the skeletal response to postnatal diet. If maternal diet induces programming that alters the balance between fat mass and bone mass in offspring, particularly during rapid childhood growth, then

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Ellen Kanitz, Winfried Otten and Margret Tuchscherer

Introduction Numerous studies show that stressors acting upon the organism during pregnancy can have distinct and long-lasting effects on the offspring. A variety of functions and systems can be influenced including behaviour

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M A Hyatt, D H Keisler, H Budge and M E Symonds

, particularly if accompanied by accelerated postnatal growth ( Ong et al . 2000 , Stettler et al . 2003 ). Maternal parity can determine birth weight ( Lumey & Stein 1997 , Gardner et al . 2007 ), postnatal growth and the longer term health of the offspring