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T C R Prickett, J C Bothwell, T G Yandle, A M Richards and E A Espiner

. 2000 ) and hypertrophy ( Kake et al . 2009 , Yasoda et al . 2009 ) (the dominant action), as well as stimulating matrix formation ( Yasoda et al . 2004 , Krejci et al . 2005 ). After intracellular processing of the CNP prohormone (CNP 1–103), both

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Ágnes Domokos, Zsuzsa Mergl, István Barna, Gábor B Makara and Dóra Zelena

). To characterize the role of AVP in physiological processes, the genetically AVP-deficient Brattleboro rat provides a good model. The AVP prohormone is processed into AVP, neurophysin, and a glycoprotein; these processes are disrupted in Brattleboro

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T Pasqua, B Tota, C Penna, A Corti, M C Cerra, Y P Loh and T Angelone

). Following stimulus and differential cell-type-specific or tissue-specific proteolytic processing at dibasic sites, CgA generates several biologically active peptides ( Helle et al . 2007 ) that, via direct and/or indirect SAN interactions, exert relevant

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Rosalba Senese, Federica Cioffi, Pieter de Lange, Fernando Goglia and Antonia Lanni

Introduction General notions The thyroid gland produces two main iodothyronines: tetraiodo- l -thyronine (T 4 ) and triiodo- l -thyronine (T 3 ). In humans, T 4 is synthesized entirely within the thyroid and acts as a pro-hormone to generate T 3

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C H J Verhoelst, V M Darras, S A Roelens, G M Artykbaeva and S Van der Geyten

central nervous system is shown in situations of clinical or induced TH deficit or excess. Under these circumstances, processes of cell migration and formation of cortical layers are affected in particular, as well as neuronal and glial cell

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Dawid Szczepankiewicz, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Przemyslaw Kaczmarek, Marek Skrzypski, Karolina Andralojc, Tatiana Wojciechowicz, Maciej Sassek and Krzysztof W Nowak

Background Peptides derived from propiomelanocortin prohormone (POMC), after posttranslational modifications, particularly α melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH), regulate appetite in the central nervous system by decreasing food intake ( Kim et

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Rafaela Fadoni Alponti, Patricia Lucio Alves and Paulo Flavio Silveira

lysine aminopeptidase activities in chromaffin granules of bovine adrenal medulla: relevance to prohormone processing . Journal of Neurochemistry 70 153 – 163 . ( doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.70010153.x ) Zambotti-Villela L Yamasaki SC Villarroel

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K K Sidhu, R C Fowkes, R H Skelly and J M Burrin

-cells. Although they do not express insulin, AtT-20 cells do express the proinsulin processing endopeptidases, prohormone convertase 1 and 2 (PC1, PC2) enabling them correctly to convert and process transfected human preproinsulin cDNA to mature insulin ( Moore

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Giuseppe Calamita, Maria Moreno, Domenico Ferri, Elena Silvestri, Patrizia Roberti, Luigi Schiavo, Patrizia Gena, Maria Svelto and Fernando Goglia

mediating the mitochondrial uptake of NH 4 + to supply the urea cycle ( Holm et al. 2005 ), a process known to be influenced by the thyroid states ( Marti et al. 1988 , Hayase et al. 1991 ). However, the physiological significance of the AQP8

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Niels L Mulder, Rick Havinga, Joost Kluiver, Albert K Groen and Janine K Kruit

. miRNAs bind with imperfect complementary to 3′-UTRs of target mRNAs, causing translational repression of the target gene or degradation of the target mRNA ( Bartel 2004 ). miRNAs are involved in a wide range of processes that includes development