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David A Taylor-Fishwick, Angela Bowman, Natasha Hamblet, Paul Bernard, David M Harlan and Aaron I Vinik

( Hirshberg et al. 2003 ), islet neogenesis relies on autologous precursor cells and therefore circumvents the complications associated with long-term immunosuppression. Islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP) was first identified in hamsters

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Motoyasu Satou, Yoshihiro Nishi, Akira Hishinuma, Hiroshi Hosoda, Kenji Kangawa and Hiroyuki Sugimoto

al . 2008 ). We previously reported that acyl protein thoesterase 1 (APT1) purified from bovine serum is a ghrelin deacylation enzyme that hydrolyzes the lipid moiety from ghrelin ( Satou et al . 2010 ). Sera derived from septic rats exhibit higher

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Ping Ye, Barbara Mariniello, Franco Mantero, Hirotaka Shibata and William E Rainey

. There are compelling evidence to support elevated expression of certain G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as a cause of some cases of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing’s syndrome ( Bugalho et al. 2000 , Dall’Asta et al. 2004

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Monique C Saleh, Michael B Wheeler and Catherine B Chan

Introduction Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), an endogenous negative regulator of insulin secretion ( Saleh et al. 2002 ), is implicated in the insulin insufficiency of type 2 diabetes in rodents ( Zhang et al. 2001 , Joseph et al

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T S McQuaid, M C Saleh, J W Joseph, A Gyulkhandanyan, J E Manning-Fox, J D MacLellan, M B Wheeler and C B Chan

Introduction Previously, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) was identified in islets and shown to be a negative regulator of insulin secretion ( Chan et al. 1999 , 2001 , Hong et al. 2001 , Zhang et al. 2001 ). Ucp2 mRNA and

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Renal iodide clearance in rats was reduced rapidly when the animals were fed a protein-depletion diet. If the iodine content of the protein-depletion diet is high, this results in an increase in the serum iodide levels to concentrations in excess of 150 μg./100 ml. Protein-bound iodine was elevated due to the accumulation of iodinated serum albumin. Thyroid hormonal iodoamino acid content was transiently depressed, presumably by the mechanism described by Wolff & Chaikoff (1948). Thyroxine metabolism was not affected except for a change in the partition of thyroxine between liver and serum. There was no evidence for pituitary involvement in the effects of protein depletion on thyroid function.

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Juliana Gastão Franco, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Josely Correa Koury, Paula Affonso Trotta, Aline Cordeiro, Luana Lopes Souza, Norma Aparecida dos Santos Almeida, Natália da Silva Lima, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa and Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos

, Vicente et al . 2004 ). In developing countries, previously malnourished populations can afford a normal protein and energy supply in their diets during developmental periods and are at higher risk of developing diseases, according to developmental

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María Cecilia Ramirez, Guillermina María Luque, Ana María Ornstein and Damasia Becu-Villalobos

downstream mechanisms, which include the sexual differentiation of female and male predominant liver enzymes and secreted proteins. Gonadal steroids were administered only at birth in order to unravel the consequences of early steroid exposure in mice. The

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E C Chin, T E Harris and D R E Abayasekara

establishment and maintenance of pregnancy ( Spencer & Bazer 2002 ). It is generally accepted that binding of LH to its G-protein-coupled receptor leads to the activation of the adenylate cyclase/cyclic-AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling pathway

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Aijaz A John, Ravi Prakash and Divya Singh

Introduction A tight regulation of gene activation and repression is required for bone development and homeostasis. Pathways like Wnt signaling and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) activate transcriptional programs of mesenchymal stem cells