Twelve patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) under secondary failure to sulfonylureas were studied to evaluate the effects of subcutaneous glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) on (a) the gastric emptying pattern of a solid meal (250 kcal) and (b) the glycemic and endocrine responses to this solid meal and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 300 kcal). 0.5 nmol/kg of GLP-1 or placebo were subcutaneously injected 20 min after meal ingestion. GLP-1 modified the pattern of gastric emptying by prolonging the time to reach maximal emptying velocity (lag period) which was followed by an acceleration in the post-lag period. The maximal emptying velocity and the emptying half-time remained unaltered. With both meals, GLP-1 diminished the postprandial glucose peak, and reduced the glycemic response during the first two postprandial hours by 54.5% (solid meal) and 32.7% (OGTT) (P < 0.05). GLP-1 markedly stimulated insulin secretion with an effect lasting for 105 min (solid meal) or 150 min (OGTT). The postprandial increase of plasma glucagon was abolished by GLP-1. GLP-1 diminished the postprandial release of pancreatic polypeptide. The initial and transient delay of gastric emptying, the enhancement of postprandial insulin release, and the inhibition of postprandial glucagon release were independent determinants (P < 0.002) of the postprandial glucose response after subcutaneous GLP-1. An inhibition of efferent vagal activity may contribute to the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on gastric emptying.
J Schirra, P Leicht, P Hildebrand, C Beglinger, R Arnold, B Goke and M Katschinski
Andreas Nygaard Madsen, Gitte Hansen, Sarah Juel Paulsen, Kirsten Lykkegaard, Mads Tang-Christensen, Harald S Hansen, Barry E Levin, Philip Just Larsen, Lotte Bjerre Knudsen, Keld Fosgerau and Niels Vrang
the novel human GLP-1 analog liraglutide for 28 days. Materials and Methods Animals All experiments were conducted in accordance with internationally accepted principles for the care and use of laboratory animals, and were approved by the Danish
L B Hays, B Wicksteed, Y Wang, J F McCuaig, L H Philipson, J M Edwardson and C J Rhodes
Amersham Biosciences (Arlington Heights, IL, USA), containing 75% l -[ 35 S]methionine was used for islet protein synthesis radiolabeling. Uridine 5′-[α- 32 P]triphosphate (3000 Ci/mmol) was purchased from Amersham Biosciences. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP
Raylene A Reimer, Gary J Grover, Lee Koetzner, Roland J Gahler, Michael R Lyon and Simon Wood
newer antidiabetic agent that increases circulating levels of active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) by inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity ( Ahren 2007 ). Given that treatment with single antihyperglycemic agents often fails to achieve
Y Watanabe, K Kawai, S Ohashi, C Yokota, S Suzuki and K Yamashita
To examine the structure–activity relationships in the insulinotropic activity of glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide (GLP-1(7–36)amide), we synthesized 16 analogues, including eight which were designed by amino acid substitutions at positions 10 (Ala10), 15 (Serl5), 16 (Tyr16), 17 (Arg17), 18 (Lys18), 21 (Gly21), 27 (Lys27) and 31 (Asp31) of GLP-1(7–36)amide with an amino acid of GH-releasing factor possessing only slight insulinotropic activity, and three tentative antagonists including [Glu15]-GLP-1(8–36)amide. Their insulinotropic activities were assessed by rat pancreas perfusion experiments, and binding affinity to GLP-1 receptors and stimulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) production were evaluated using cultured RINm5F cells.
Insulinotropic activity was estimated as GLP-1(7–36)amide = Tyr16>Lys18, Lys27>Gly21>Asp31⪢Ser15,Arg17>Ala10⪢GRF>[Glu15]-GLP-1(8–36) amide. Displacement activity against 125I-labelled GLP-1 (7–36)amide binding and stimulatory activity for cAMP production in RINm5F cells correlated well with their insulinotropic activity in perfused rat pancreases.
These results demonstrate that (1) positions 10 (glycine), 15 (aspartic acid) and 17 (serine) in the amino acid sequence of GLP-1(7–36)amide, in addition to the N-terminal histidine, are essential for its insulinotropic activity through its binding to the receptor, (2) the amino acid sequences for the C-terminal half of GLP-1(7–36)amide also contribute to its binding to the receptor, although they are less important compared with those of the N-terminal half, and (3) [Glu15]-GLP-1(8–36)amide is not an antagonist of GLP-1(7–36)amide as opposed to des-His1 [Glu9]-glucagon amide which is a potent glucagon antagonist.
Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 140, 45–52
Astrid C Hauge-Evans, James Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Zoheb Hassan and Peter M Jones
available kits (Insulin: Millipore Ltd, Watford, UK; glucagon: Mercodia, Uppsala, Sweden; SST and GLP1: USCN Life Science, Inc., Wuhan, China; catecholamine: Bioassay Technology Laboratory, Shanghai, China). Islet hormone concentrations in the incubation
Barbara C Fam, Rebecca Sgambellone, Zheng Ruan, Joseph Proietto and Sofianos Andrikopoulos
-like peptide 1 ( Glp1 ) mRNA in gut ileum. Glp1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in DIO mice as compared to both DR and chow-fed mice ( Fig. 6 A), whereas DR mice had the same expression level as chow-fed mice. When GPR gene levels were assessed, DIO
MD Robertson, G Livesey, LM Morgan, SM Hampton and JC Mathers
Glucagon-like peptide (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis released rapidly after meals despite the fact that GLP-1 secreting cells (L-cells) occur predominantly in the distal gut. The importance of these colonic L-cells for postprandial GLP-1 was determined in healthy control subjects and in ileostomy patients with minimal small bowel resection (<5 cm). Subjects were fed a high complex carbohydrate test meal (15.3 g starch) followed by two carbohydrate-free, high fat test meals (25 g and 48.7 g fat respectively). Circulating levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose insulinotrophic peptide (GIP) and GLP-1 were measured over a 9-h postprandial period. For both subject groups the complex carbohydrate test meal failed to elicit a rise in either GIP or GLP-1. However, both hormones were elevated after the fat load although the GLP-1 concentration was significantly reduced in the ileostomist group when compared with controls (P=0.02). Associated with this reduction in circulating GLP-1 was an elevation in glucagon concentration (P=0.012) and a secondary rise in the plasma glucose concentration (P=0.006). These results suggest that the loss of colonic endocrine tissue is an important determinant in the postprandial GLP-1 concentration. Ileostomists should not be assumed to have normal enteroinsular function as the colon appears to have an important role in postprandial metabolism.
P Plaisancié, V Dumoulin, J-A Chayvialle and J-C Cuber
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from endocrine cells of the distal part of the gut after ingestion of a meal. GLP-1 secretion is, in part, under the control of hormonal and/or neural mechanisms. However, stimulation of the colonic L cells may also occur directly by the luminal contents. This was examined in the present study, using an isolated vascularly perfused rat colon. GLP-1 immunoreactivity was measured in the portal effluent after luminal infusion of a variety of compounds which are found in colonic contents (nutrients, fibers, bile acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)). Oleic acid (100 mm) or a mixture of amino acids (total concentration 250 mm), or starch (0·5%, w/v) did not increase GLP-1 secretion over basal value. A pharmacological concentration of glucose (250 mm) elicited a marked release of GLP-1 which was maximal at the end of infusion (400% of basal), while 5 mm glucose was without effect on secretion. Pectin evoked a dose-dependent release of GLP-1 over the range 0·1–0·5% (w/v) with a maximal response at 360% of basal when 0·5% pectin was infused. Cellulose or gum arabic (0·5%) did not modify GLP-1 secretion. The SCFAs acetate, propionate or butyrate (5, 20 and 100 mm) did not induce a significant release of GLP-1. Among the four bile acids tested, namely taurocholate, cholate, deoxycholate and hyodeoxycholate, the last one was the most potent at eliciting a GLP-1 response with a maximal release at 300% and 400% of the basal value when 2 and 20 mm bile acid were administered respectively. In conclusion, some fibres and bile acids are capable of releasing colonic GLP-1 in rats and may contribute to the secretory activity of colonic L cells.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 145, 521–526
A Acitores, N Gonzalez, V Sancho, I Valverde and ML Villanueva-Penacarrillo
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin with glucose-dependent insulinotropic and insulin-independent antidiabetic properties, has insulin-like effects on glucose metabolism in extrapancreatic tissues participating in overall glucose homeostasis. These effects are exerted through specific receptors not associated with cAMP, an inositol phosphoglycan being a possible second messenger. In rat hepatocytes, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1) has been shown to be involved in the GLP-1-induced stimulation of glycogen synthase. We have investigated the role of enzymes known or suggested to mediate the actions of insulin in the GLP-1-induced increase in glycogen synthase a activity in rat skeletal muscle strips. We first explored the effect of GLP-1, compared with that of insulin, on the activation of PI3K, PKB, p70s6 kinase (p70s6k) and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the action of specific inhibitors of these kinases on the insulin- and GLP-1-induced increment in glycogen synthase a activity. The study showed that GLP-1, like insulin, activated PI3K/PKB, p70s6k and p44/42. Wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor) reduced the stimulatory action of insulin on glycogen synthase a activity and blocked that of GLP-1, rapamycin (a 70s6k inhibitor) did not affect the action of GLP-1 but abolished that of insulin, PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor) was ineffective on insulin but blocked the action of GLP-1, okadaic acid (a PP-2A inhibitor) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (a PP-1 inhibitor) were both ineffective on GLP-1 but abolished the action of insulin, and Ro 31-8220 (an inhibitor of some PKC isoforms) reduced the effect of GLP-1 while completely preventing that of insulin. It was concluded that activation of PI3K/PKB and MAPKs is required for the GLP-1-induced increment in glycogen synthase a activity, while PKC, although apparently participating, does not seem to play an essential role; unlike in insulin signaling, p70s6k, PP-1 and PP-2A do not seem to be needed in the action of GLP-1 upon glycogen synthase a activity in rat muscle.