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Dimitrios Agas, Guilherme Gusmão Silva, Fulvio Laus, Andrea Marchegiani, Melania Capitani, Cecilia Vullo, Giuseppe Catone, Giovanna Lacava, Antonio Concetti, Luigi Marchetti and Maria Giovanna Sabbieti

its dual effect depends on experimental and clinical conditions. It was demonstrated that IFN-γ decreases osteoclast differentiation by directly targeting osteoclast precursors, but indirectly stimulates osteoclast formation and bone resorption

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Ke Ke, Ok-Joo Sul, Soo-Wol Chung, Jae-Hee Suh and Hye-Seon Choi

). Consistent with this, serum CTX-1, an in vivo bone resorption marker, was also reduced in the absence of NOD2 upon OVX ( Table 1 ). OVX also increased levels of the in vivo bone formation markers serum ALP and osteocalcin in WT mice, but lack of NOD2 did

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Anyonya R Guntur and Clifford J Rosen

formation 5) Akt1 Kawamura et al . (2007) Decreased bone formation and osteoclast-mediated resorption 6) myrAKT (under the control of Col2a1 promoter) Rokutanda et al . (2009) AKT regulates endochondral bone formation (acting on GSK3, MTOR, and FOXO) 7

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J Jeyabalan, M Shah, B Viollet and C Chenu

mice stimulates bone loss and bone turnover with elevated rates of both bone formation and bone resorption ( Quinn et al . 2010 ). The high bone resorption was due to an increase in osteoclast number. While the authors of this study confirmed that

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Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Adam J Branscum, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

manufacturer’s protocol (Qiagen). The expression of 84 genes related to neurotransmitter receptors in hypothalamus and 84 genes related to bone formation and bone resorption in tibia was determined using the Mouse ‘Neurotransmitter Receptors’ RT 2 Profiler PCR

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Yongmei Wang, Takeshi Sakata, Hashem Z Elalieh, Scott J Munson, Andrew Burghardt, Sharmila Majumdar, Bernard P Halloran and Daniel D Bikle

by assessing fat free weight (FFW), structure by micro computed tomography (μCT), bone histomorphometry, colony forming units in bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) cultures, and mRNA levels of resorption and formation markers using quantitative real

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Jonathan J Nicholls, Mary Jane Brassill, Graham R Williams and J H Duncan Bassett

resorption, reversal, bone formation and quiescence. Activation of the bone remodelling cycle is initiated by local structural damage, altered mechanical loading mediated by osteocytes embedded within the bone, or by changes in systemic or paracrine factors

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Jonathan H Gooi, Ling Yeong Chia, Nicole C Walsh, Morten A Karsdal, Julian M W Quinn, T John Martin and Natalie A Sims

agents restore vertebral bone mass and strength in aged ovariectomized rats . Bone 16 629 – 635 . ( doi:10.1016/8756-3282(95)00115-T ) Martin TJ Sims NA 2005 Osteoclast-derived activity in the coupling of bone formation to resorption

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Christianne M A Reijnders, Nathalie Bravenboer, Annechien M Tromp, Marinus A Blankenstein and Paul Lips

physical activity results in decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption, whereas increased physical activity has the opposite effect ( Yeh et al. 1993 ). It has been suggested that osteocytes function as mechanosensors via canalicular

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Russell T Turner, Kenneth A Philbrick, Amida F Kuah, Adam J Branscum and Urszula T Iwaniec

decrease of bone quantity and bone quality of leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice by promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption . Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31 1713 – 1724 . ( doi:10.1002/jbmr.2837 ) Kishida Y Hirao M