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Paula J Brunton, Katie M Sullivan, David Kerrigan, John A Russell, Jonathan R Seckl and Amanda J Drake

-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2; the placental ‘barrier’ to maternal glucocorticoids that deactivates endogenous glucocorticoids) during late pregnancy results in offspring of low birth weight ( Lindsay et al . 1996 a , Benediktsson et al . 1997 , Nyirenda et

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William H James

variation in sex ratio the time of formation of the zygotes? It is possible that some environmental agents directly affect the ratio of men's X- and Y-bearing sperm: this has been suggested by Robbins et al . (2007) as a cause of the low offspring sex

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Melanie Tran, Linda A Gallo, Andrew J Jefferies, Karen M Moritz and Mary E Wlodek

–45% reduction in β-cell mass in adult first-generation (F1) growth-restricted male offspring ( Siebel et al . 2008 , Wadley et al . 2008 , Laker et al . 2011 ). By contrast, F1 growth-restricted females displayed normal glucose tolerance despite reduced

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Michael E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, James Law, Hernan P Fainberg, Mark Pope, Harold Sacks and Helen Budge

newborn and young animals is actually closer to their body temperature ( Cannon & Nedergaard 2011 ). Recent studies have suggested that low-birth-weight offspring have raised UCP1 compared to normal-sized litter mates ( Dumortier et al . 2017 ). Growth

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Brittney L Marshall, Yang Liu, Michelle J Farrington, Jiude Mao, William G Helferich, A Katrin Schenk, Nathan J Bivens, Saurav J Sarma, Zhentian Lei, Lloyd W Sumner, Trupti Joshi and Cheryl S Rosenfeld

bisphenol A (BPA) exposure, weaned animals were housed either in polystyrene (for breeder pairs) or polypropylene cages (for F 1 offspring) (Allentown Inc, Allentown, NJ, USA), provided glass water bottles and BPA-free water. Two weeks prior to breeding

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D S Gardner, B W M Van Bon, J Dandrea, P J Goddard, S F May, V Wilson, T Stephenson and M E Symonds

resultant adult offspring ( Nyirenda et al. 2001 , Roseboom et al. 2001 , Gardner et al. 2005 ). Glucocorticoid hormones have many metabolic and cardiovascular actions on the body, reflecting the almost ubiquitous tissue distribution of their

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Dipali Goyal, Sean W Limesand and Ravi Goyal

Introduction Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated a relation between intrauterine fetal stressors and the development of diseases in the adult offspring. These fetal stressors

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Isabela Teixeira Bonomo, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa, Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos, Simone Bezerra Alves, Adelina Martha Reis and Egberto Gaspar de Moura

adulthood; however, protein malnutrition programs for a lower body weight in the adult offspring ( Passos et al . 2000 , Teixeira et al . 2002 ). We have suggested a relationship between neonatal nutritional status and thyroid function in adult life

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Folami Y Ideraabdullah, Anthony M Belenchia, Cheryl S Rosenfeld, Seth W Kullman, Megan Knuth, Debabrata Mahapatra, Michael Bereman, Edward D Levin and Catherine A Peterson

during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia, which can indirectly affect offspring health ( Bodnar et al. 2007 , Brannon 2012 , Senti et al. 2012 ). It is also associated with direct effects on

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Jennifer E Bruin, Lisa D Kellenberger, Hertzel C Gerstein, Katherine M Morrison and Alison C Holloway

. 2003 , Gao et al. 2005 , Holloway et al. 2005 ). The β-cell loss, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia observed in the nicotine-exposed offspring from this animal model ( Holloway et al. 2005 ) closely represent symptoms associated