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S Saifia, AM Chevrier, A Bosshard, JC Cuber, JA Chayvialle and J Abello

The neuropeptide galanin is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and exerts several inhibitory effects, especially on intestinal motility and on insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells. The presence of galanin fibres not only in the myenteric and submucosal plexus but also in the mucosa, prompted us to investigate the regulatory role of galanin, and its mechanism of action, on the secretion of the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Rat ileal cells were dispersed through mechanical vibration followed by moderate exposure to hyaluronidase, DNase I and EDTA, and enriched for L-cells by counterflow elutriation. A 6- to 7-fold enrichment in GLP-1 cell content was registered after elutriation, as compared with the crude cell preparation (929 +/- 81 vs 138 +/- 14 fmol/10(6) cells). L-cells then accounted for 4-5% of the total cell population. Bombesin induced a time-(15-240 min) and dose- (0.1 nM-1 microM) dependent release of GLP-1. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, 100 nM), forskolin (10 microM) and the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA, 1 microM) each stimulated GLP-1 secretion over a 1-h incubation period. Galanin (0.01-100 nM) induced a dose-dependent inhibition of bombesin- and of GIP-stimulated GLP-1 release (mean inhibition of 90% with 100 nM galanin). Galanin also dose-dependently inhibited forskolin-induced GLP-1 secretion (74% of inhibition with 100 nM galanin), but not TPA-stimulated hormone release. Pretreatment of cells with 200 ng/ml pertussis toxin for 3 h, or incubation with the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker disopyramide (200 microM), prevented the inhibition by galanin of bombesin- and GIP-stimulated GLP-1 secretion. These studies indicate that intestinal secretion of GLP-1 is negatively controlled by galanin, that acts through receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and involves ATP-dependent K+ channels.

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CF Deacon, S Wamberg, P Bie, TE Hughes and JJ Holst

The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), thereby losing insulinotropic activity. DPP IV inhibition reduces exogenous GLP-1 degradation, but the extent of endogenous incretin protection has not been fully assessed, largely because suitable assays which distinguish between intact and degraded peptides have been unavailable. Using newly developed assays for intact GLP-1 and GIP, the effect of DPP IV inhibition on incretin hormone metabolism was examined. Conscious dogs were given NVP-DPP728, a specific DPP IV inhibitor, at a dose that inhibited over 90% of plasma DPP IV for the first 90 min following treatment. Total and intact incretin concentrations increased (P<0.0001) following a mixed meal, but on control days (vehicle infusion), intact peptide concentrations were lower (P<0.01) than total peptide concentrations (22.6 +/- 1.2% intact GIP; 10.1 +/- 0.4% intact GLP-1). Following inhibitor treatment, the proportion of intact peptide increased (92.5 +/- 4.3% intact GIP, P<0.0001; 99.0 +/- 22.6% intact GLP-1, P<0.02). Active (intact) incretins increased after NVP-DPP728 (from 4797 +/- 364 to 10 649 +/- 106 pM x min for GIP, P<0.03; from 646 +/- 134 to 2822 +/- 528 pM x m in for GLP-1, P<0.05). In contrast, total incretins fell (from 21 632 +/- 654 to 12 084 +/- 1723 pM x min for GIP, P<0.002; from 5145 +/- 677 to 3060 +/- 601 pM x min for GLP-1, P<0.05). Plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations were unaltered by the inhibitor. We have concluded that DPP IV inhibition with NVP-DPP728 prevents N-terminal degradation of endogenous incretins in vivo, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of intact, biologically active GIP and GLP-1. Total incretin secretion was reduced by DPP IV inhibition, suggesting the possibility of a feedback mechanism.

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Peixin Li, Zhijian Rao, Brenton Thomas Laing, Wyatt Bunner, Taylor Landry, Amber Prete, Yuan Yuan, Zhong-Tao Zhang and Hu Huang

play a direct role after VSG. Furthermore, recent clinical studies in humans have shown that improved glucose homeostasis and even diabetes remission may be related to increased nutrient-stimulated glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY (PYY

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M L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, E Delgado, M A Trapote, A Alcántara, F Clemente, M A Luque, A Perea and I Valverde

Abstract

We have found [125I]glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1(7–36)amide specific binding activity in rat liver and isolated hepatocyte plasma membranes, with an Mr of approximately 63 000, estimated by cross-linking and SDS-PAGE. The specific binding was time- and membrane protein concentration-dependent, and equally displaced by unlabelled GLP-1(7–36)amide and by GLP-1(1–36)amide, achieving its ID50 at 3×10−9 m of the peptides. GLP-1(7–36)amide did not modify the basal or the glucagon (10−8 m)-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the hepatocyte plasma membranes. These data, together with our previous findings of a potent glycogenic effect of GLP-1(7–36)amide in isolated rat hepatocytes, led us to postulate that the insulin-like effects of this peptide on glucose liver metabolism could be mediated by a type of receptor probably different from that described for GLP-1 in pancreatic B-cells or, alternatively, by the same receptor which, in this tissue as well as in muscle, uses a different transduction system.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 146, 183–189

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P A Martin and A Faulkner

Abstract

The effects of intravenous somatostatin-28 (S28) infusion on glucose-stimulated and glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1)-augmented insulin secretion were studied in sheep. S28 was infused via a jugular catheter for 15 min at a rate of 1·1 pmol/kg/min either alone or together with GLP-1 and/or glucose. S28 infusion did not significantly lower circulating basal insulin concentrations in fed sheep. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was significantly inhibited by S28 infusion, serum concentrations decreasing from about 200 to 150 pmol/l. GLP-1 significantly augmented glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, serum concentrations increasing from about 230 to 280 pmol/l. S28 completely counteracted this effect of GLP-1. S28 infusion also significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 in fed sheep (from about 110 to 45 pmol/l for GIP and from about 25 to 15 pmol/l for GLP-1). The physiological implications of these observations are discussed with particular reference to the ruminant. It is concluded that S28 may have an important endocrine role in the control of insulin secretion and regulation of nutrient partitioning.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 151, 107–112

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R. Göke and J. M. Conlon

ABSTRACT

Specific binding of 125I-labelled glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1(7–36)amide) to rat insulinoma-derived RINm5F cells was dependent upon time and temperature and was proportional to cell concentration. Binding of radioactivity was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by GLP-1(7–36) amide consistent with the presence of a single class of binding site with a dissociation constant (K d) of 204± 8 pmol/l (mean ± s.e.m.). Binding of the peptide resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cyclic AMP concentrations (half maximal response at 250 ± 20 pmol/l). GLP-1(1–36)amide was approximately 200 times less potent than GLP-1(7–36)amide in inhibiting the binding of 125I-labelled GLP-1(7–36)amide to the cells (K d of 45±6 nmol/l). Binding sites for GLP-1 (7–36)amide were not present on dispersed enterocytes from porcine small intestine.

J. Endocr. (1988) 116, 357–362

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Barbara C Fam, Rebecca Sgambellone, Zheng Ruan, Joseph Proietto and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

-like peptide 1 ( Glp1 ) mRNA in gut ileum. Glp1 mRNA expression was significantly reduced in DIO mice as compared to both DR and chow-fed mice ( Fig. 6 A), whereas DR mice had the same expression level as chow-fed mice. When GPR gene levels were assessed, DIO

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J. Oben, L. Morgan, J. Fletcher and V. Marks

ABSTRACT

The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide, (GLP-1(7–36) amide), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), glucagon and insulin on fatty acid synthesis in explants of rat adipose tissue from various sites was investigated. GIP, GLP-1(7–36) amide and insulin stimulated fatty acid synthesis, as determined by measuring the incorporation of [14C]acetate into saponifiable fat, in a dose-dependent manner, over the concentration range 5–15 ng/ml (0·87–2·61 nmol/l) for insulin and 0·5–7·5 ng/ml for GIP (0·10–1·50 nmol/l) and GLP-1(7–36) amide (0·15–2·27 nmol/l). Insulin and GIP caused a significantly greater stimulation of [14C]acetate incorporation into fatty acids in omental adipose tissue than in either epididymal or subcutaneous adipose tissue. Both GIP and GLP-1(7–36) amide had the ability to stimulate fatty acid synthesis within the physiological range of the circulating hormones. At lower concentrations of the hormones, GLP-1(7–36) amide was a more potent stimulator of fatty acid synthesis than GIP in omental adipose tissue culture; the basal rate of fatty acid synthesis was 0·41±0·03 pmol acetate incorporated/mg wet weight tissue per 2 h; at 0·10 nmol hormone/l 1·15±0·10 and 3·40±0·12 pmol acetate incorporated/mg wet weight tissue per 2 h for GIP and GLP-1(7–36) amide respectively (P < 0·01). GLP-2 and glucagon were without effect on fatty acid synthesis in omental adipose tissue. The study indicates that GIP and GLP-1(7–36) amide, in addition to stimulating insulin secretion, may play a direct physiological role in vivo, in common with insulin, in promoting fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue.

Journal of Endocrinology (1991) 130, 267–272

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Astrid C Hauge-Evans, James Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Zoheb Hassan and Peter M Jones

available kits (Insulin: Millipore Ltd, Watford, UK; glucagon: Mercodia, Uppsala, Sweden; SST and GLP1: USCN Life Science, Inc., Wuhan, China; catecholamine: Bioassay Technology Laboratory, Shanghai, China). Islet hormone concentrations in the incubation

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J Claustre, S Brechet, P Plaisancie, JA Chayvialle and JC Cuber

Postprandial release of peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from L cells results from both nutrient transit in the ileal lumen and neural drive of endocrine cells. The adrenosympathetic system and its effectors have been shown to induce secretion of L cells in vivo or in vitro. Because these transmitters act through three receptors, beta, alpha1, alpha2, coupled to different intracellular pathways, we evaluated the responses of L cells to specific agonists, using the model of isolated vascularly perfused rat ileum. General stimulation of adrenergic receptors with epinephrine (10(-7) M) induced significant GLP-1 and PYY secretions (94+/-38 and 257+/-59 fmol/8 min respectively) which were abolished upon propranolol (10(-7) M) pretreatment and strongly decreased upon infusion with 10(-8) M prazosin. Blockade of alpha2-receptors with idazoxan (10(-8) M) did not alter epinephrine-induced peptide secretion. The beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10(-6) M) infused for 30 min induced a transient release of GLP-1 and PYY (integrated release over the 8 min of the peak secretion: 38+/-16 and 214+/-69 fmol for GLP-1 and PYY respectively, P<0.05). Because terbutaline but not dobutamine or BRL 37,344 (10(-5) M) induced significant GLP-1 and PYY secretions (135+/-30 and 305+/-39 fmol/8 min respectively), isoproterenol-induced secretions are suggested to result mainly from stimulation of the beta2-isoreceptor type. In contrast, the alpha1-agonist phenylephrine (10(-7) M) did not stimulate peptide release. When co-infused with 10(-6) M or 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M phenylephrine raised GLP-1 release to 174+/-53 and 108+/-28 fmol/8 min respectively (vs 38+/-16 and 35+/-10 fmol/8 min for isoproterenol alone, P<0.05) whereas PYY secretion was not significantly increased. Clonidine (10(-7) M), an alpha2-agonist, induced a moderate and delayed increase of GLP-1 and PYY but abolished the isoproterenol-induced peptide secretion. Our results showed that general stimulation of adrenergic receptors stimulates the secretory activity of ileal endocrine L cells. The net peptide secretion results from the activation of the beta2-isoreceptor type. Additionally, GLP-1 and PYY secretions are positively modulated by alpha1-receptor stimulation and inhibited by alpha2-receptor activation upon beta-receptor occupation.