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S. Massart, D. Maiter, D. Portetelle, E. Adam, R. Renaville and J.-M. Ketelslegers

ABSTRACT

Administration of GH complexed with monoclonal antibodies (MABs) potentiates the in vivo actions of the hormone. In particular, growth and serum IGF-I concentrations of GH-treated hypophysectomized rats are increased by concomittant injection of anti-GH MABs. Among 37 anti-bovine GH (bGH) MABs, we selected one MAB with the most potentiating effects to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon. Hypophysectomized rats were killed 18 h after a single s.c. injection of bGH (100 μg/rat), alone or complexed with increasing doses of MAB (4, 40, 400 μg/rat; MAB:bGH molar ratio: 0·005, 0·05, 0·5). IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay in acid–extracted sera and livers, whereas liver IGF-I mRNA was quantified by Northern blot hybridization. The in vivo occupancy of liver somatogenic (GH) receptors was derived from the determinations of total and free 125I-labelled bGH binding to liver homogenates treated with 4 mol MgCl2/l or water. Injection of MAB–bGH complexes enhanced body weight gain and raised serum IGF-I, liver IGF-I and liver IGF-I mRNA more than bGH alone (1·6-, 6-, 10- and 7-fold increases at the highest dose of MAB, compared with bGH alone; P < 0·001). These potentiating effects of the MAB were dose-dependent and significant potentiation of the growth response was already observed with the lowest dose of MAB. In vivo occupancy of liver GH receptors was markedly higher 18 h after injection of MAB–bGH complexes than after bGH alone, and this effect was also dose-dependent (receptor occupancy of 28%, 37% and 83% after 4, 40 and 400 μg of MAB respectively compared with 6% after bGH alone; P < 0·05, 0·05 and 0·001 respectively). In contrast, the in vitro binding of 125I-labelled bGH to liver homogenates was decreased in the presence of high doses of MAB.

We conclude that low amounts of MABs complexed with bGH potentiate the stimulation by the hormone of liver IGF-I synthesis and secretion in a dose–dependent manner. These effects are mediated, at least in part, through changes in hormone-receptor interaction in vivo, leading to enhanced and/or prolonged binding of bGH to its somatogenic receptors.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 139, 383–393

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A. N. Brooks and F. Gibson

ABSTRACT

This study examined the ability of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to regulate ACTH secretion from cultured anterior pituitary cells of fetal sheep between days 130 and 140 of gestation (term = 145 days). Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) induced dose-dependent (0·1–1000 nmol/l) increases in ACTH secretion from fetal sheep pituitary cells maintained in culture for 6 days, with AVP being significantly (P<0·01) more potent than CRF. PGE2 (1000 nmol/l) significantly (P<0·05) enhanced the ability of AVP, but not CRF, to stimulate ACTH secretion. However, PGE2 given alone (0·1–1000 nmol/l) had no effect on ACTH secretion. Concomitant administration of CRF and AVP induced a greater release of ACTH than after treatment with either peptide alone, a synergistic interaction which was unaffected by simultaneous administration of PGE2.

These results provide evidence for a direct action of PGE2 on ACTH secretion from the fetal sheep pituitary gland via a specific interaction with AVP. This interaction may allow increased fetal plasma concentrations of PGE2, seen during late gestation, to stimulate fetal pituitary–adrenal maturation.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 132, 33–38

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L Op De Beeck, J E A Verlooy, S C Van Buul-Offers and M V L Du Caju

Abstract

A novel procedure for the detection of IGF binding capacity of IGFBPs on Western ligand blots (WLB) was developed using biotinylated IGFs as probes. The biotinylated IGF-IGFBP complexes were visualized by streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL). The procedure was found to be faster and more efficient than the conventional method with iodinated IGFs. In normal human serum a predominant doublet at 38-42 kDa and five smaller bands at 35, 34, 30, 28 and 24 kDa were detected by both methods, whereas two additional bands at 26 and 16 kDa became visible with the ECL method. In pregnancy serum only one single faint band at 30 kDa could be detected by the iodinated method. In contrast, the ECL method revealed five other bands at 42, 34, 28, 26 and 16 kDa. Besides the 38-42 kDa doublet, the 30 and 16 kDa bands reacted strongly with anti-IGFBP-3 antibodies in Western immunoblotting (WIB) and therefore were related to IGFBP-3 fragments. The technical advantages of this ECL method include an extremely short exposure time to the radiographic film and a long stability of the probe. In addition, the ECL method is a non-radioactive method, making radioprotection and radioactive waste removal unnecessary.

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R Singh, G Upadhyay, S Kumar, A Kapoor, A Kumar, M Tiwari and MM Godbole

Thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency results in delayed proliferation and migration of cerebellar granule cells. Although extensive cell loss during the development of the cerebellum under hypothyroid conditions is known, its nature and its mechanism are poorly understood. Bcl-2 family gene expression is known to determine the fate of cells to undergo apoptosis. We evaluated the effect of hypothyroidism on Bcl-2 family gene expression in the developing rat cerebellum. Electrophoresis and Western blotting were used to analyze DNA fragmentation and expression of DNA fragmentation factor (DFF-45), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax genes respectively. In the hypothyroid condition, extensive DNA fragmentation and enhanced cleavage of DFF-45 were seen throughout development (postnatal day 0 to day 24) and adulthood whereas they were absent in the euthyroid state. The anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were down-regulated and the pro-apoptotic gene Bax was expressed at higher levels compared with the euthyroid state. These results suggest that normal levels of TH prevent cerebellar apoptosis to a large extent, whereas hypothyroidism not only increases the extent but also the duration of apoptosis by down-regulating the anti-apoptotic genes and maintaining a high level of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax.

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F Le Bellego, C Pisselet, C Huet, P Monget and D Monniaux

This study aimed to determine the physiological role of laminin (LN) and its receptor, alpha(6)beta(1) integrin, in controlling the functions of granulosa cells (GC) during follicular development in sheep ovary. Immunohistochemistry experiments showed the presence of increasing levels of LN (P<0.0001), and high levels of mature alpha(6)beta(1) integrin in GC layers of healthy antral follicles during the follicular and the preovulatory phases of the estrous cycle. In vitro, the addition of a function-blocking antibody raised against alpha(6) subunit (anti-alpha(6) IgG) to the medium of ovine GC cultured on LN impaired cell spreading (P<0.0001), decreased the proliferation rate (P<0.05) and increased the apoptosis rate (P<0.05). Furthermore, addition of anti-alpha(6) IgG enhanced estradiol (E2) secretion by GC in the presence or absence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone or insulin-like growth factor-I in culture medium (P<0.0001), and inhibited progesterone (P4) secretion in basal conditions or in the presence of low (0.5 ng/ml) FSH concentrations only (P<0.0001). The anti-alpha(6) IgG effect was specific to an interaction of LN with alpha(6)beta(1) integrin since it was ineffective on GC cultured on heat-denatured LN, RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) peptides and non-coated substratum. Hence, this study established that alpha(6)beta(1) integrin 1) was expressed in GC of antral follicles, 2) mediated the actions of LN on survival, proliferation and steroidogenesis of GC, and 3) was able to dramatically modulate P4 and E2 secretion by GC in vitro. It is suggested that during the follicular and the preovulatory phases of the estrous cycle, the increasing levels of LN in GC of large antral follicles might support their final development to ovulation.

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A. T. Holder, J. A. Blows, R. Aston and P. C. Bates

ABSTRACT

Dwarf mice were treated for 10 days with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), human growth hormone (hGH) or hGH with monoclonal antibody EB1 (hGH/MAB-EB1); for each treatment there were three groups which received 50, 75 or 100% of the amount of food eaten when available ad libitum.

The PBS control groups lost more or gained less weight than equivalent groups receiving hGH alone, and mice given hGH/MAB-EB1 showed a greater weight gain than those in comparable groups receiving hGH alone. When weight gain or loss was expressed as g/g food eaten, groups treated with hGH gained more or lost less than the PBS groups. Similarly, weight gain/g food was significantly greater in hGH/MAB-EB1 animals than in the comparable groups given hGH alone. A similar pattern of response was observed for increases in tail length and uptake of 35SO4 2− into costal cartilage in vivo. For mice given hGH alone, fat content was decreased compared with that in the equivalent group given PBS, and mice treated with hGH/MAB-EB1 had less fat than the equivalent group given hGH alone. Administration of hGH alone caused a concomitant increase in protein content and body weight such that, compared with mice given PBS, there was no significant increase in protein as a proportion of body weight. However, hGH/MAB-EB1 caused an increase in whole body protein which was significantly greater than that for the equivalent group given hGH alone, when expressed as per cent body weight.

Monoclonal antibody EB1 has been shown to enhance the actions of hGH on growth and body composition in Snell dwarf mice and to increase food conversion efficiency.

J. Endocr. (1988) 117,85–90

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Kuladip Jana, Xiangling Yin, Randolph B Schiffer, Jau-Jiin Chen, Akhilesh K Pandey, Douglas M Stocco, Paula Grammas and XingJia Wang

. 2002 ). We have studied the steroidogenic effect of this flavonoid and found that chrysin significantly enhanced steroidogenesis in Leydig cells mainly by increasing the StAR gene expression. Materials and Methods Reagents N 6 ,2-dibutyryladenosine 3

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Y Liu, P Cserjesi, A Nifuji, E N Olson and M Noda

Abstract

Scleraxis is a recently identified transcription factor with a basic helix-loop-helix motif, which is expressed in sclerotome during embryonic development. We have examined the expression of scleraxis mRNA in rat osteoblastic cells and found that the scleraxis gene was expressed as a 1·2 kb mRNA species in osteoblastic osteosarcoma ROS 17/2·8 cells. The scleraxis mRNA expression was enhanced by type-β transforming growth factor (TGFβ) treatment. The TGFβ effect was observed in a dosedependent manner starting at 0·2 ng/ml and saturating at 2 ng/ml. The effect was time-dependent and was first observed within 12 h and peaked at 24 h. The TGFβ effect was blocked by cycloheximide, while no effect on scleraxis mRNA stability was observed. TGFβ treatment enhanced scleraxis-E box (Scx-E) binding activity in the nuclear extracts of ROS17/2·8 cells. Furthermore, TGFβ enhanced transcriptional activity of the CAT constructs which contain the Scx-E box sequence. TGFβ treatment also enhanced scleraxis gene expression in osteoblastenriched cells derived from primary rat calvaria. These findings indicated for the first time that the novel helixloop-helix type transcription factor (scleraxis) mRNA is expressed in osteoblasts and its expression is regulated by TGFβ.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 151, 491–499

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M. C. d'Emden and J. D. Wark

ABSTRACT

The hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) has been shown to selectively enhance agonist-induced TSH release in the rat thyrotroph in vitro. The interaction of 1,25-(OH)2D3 with tri-iodothyronine (T3) and cortisol was studied in primary cultures of dispersed anterior pituitary cells. TRH (1 nmol/l)-induced TSH release over 1 h was enhanced by 70% (P<0·01) following exposure to 10 nmol 1,25-(OH)2D3/l for 24 h. Pretreatment with T3 (1 pmol/l–1 μmol/l) for 24 h caused a dose-dependent inhibition of TRH-induced TSH release. Net TRH-induced TSH release was inhibited by 85% at T3 concentrations of 3 nmol/l or greater. Co-incubation with 1,25-(OH)2D3 resulted in enhanced TRH-induced TSH release at all T3 concentrations tested (P<0·001). The increment of TRH-induced TSH release resulting from 1,25-(OH)2D3 pretreatment was equivalent in the presence or absence of maximal inhibitory T3 concentrations. At 1 nmol T3/1, there was a two- to threefold relative increase in 1,25-(OH)2D3-enhanced TRH-induced TSH release. Incubation with cortisol (100 pmol/l–100 nmol/l) had no effect on basal or TRH-induced TSH release, nor did it alter 1,25-(OH)2D3-enhanced TRH-induced TSH release when added 24 h before, or at the time of addition of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Actinomycin D and α-amanitin abolished 1,25-(OH)2D3-enhanced TSH secretion.

These data demonstrate that the action of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the thyrotroph required new RNA transcription, and was not affected by cortisol. In the presence of T3, the response of the thyrotroph to TRH induced by 1,25-(OH)2D3 was increased. We have shown that 1,25-(OH)2D3 has significant effects on the action of TRH and T3 in vitro. These findings support the proposal that 1,25-(OH)2D3 may modulate TSH secretion in vivo.

Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 121, 451–458

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ME Fabiani, M Sourial, WG Thomas, CI Johnston, CI Johnston and AG Frauman

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is present in the human prostate and may be activated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), possibly contributing to the pathophysiology of this disorder by enhancing local sympathetic tone and cell growth. The functional role of the RAS in the prostate, however, is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether angiotensin (Ang) II enhances sympathetic transmission in the prostate. The neuronal stores of the rat prostate were labelled with [(3)H]noradrenaline (NA). Ang II and Ang I enhanced [(3)H]NA release in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ang II receptor subtype 1 (AT(1) receptor) antagonist losartan and the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 inhibited this facilitatory effect of Ang II and Ang I, whereas the other AT(2) receptor antagonist, CGP42112, was without effect. Bradykinin also increased [(3)H]NA release, which was inhibited by the B(2) receptor antagonist Hoe140. The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril inhibited the effect of Ang I, but potentiated that of bradykinin. Interestingly, captopril alone produced an increase in [(3)H]NA release which was inhibited by Hoe140. Losartan, but not PD123319 or CGP42112, inhibited [(125)I]-Ang II binding in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the AT(1a) or AT(1b) receptor. In contrast, in cells expressing the AT(2) receptor, PD123319 and CGP42112, but not losartan, inhibited [(125)I]-Ang II binding. In conclusion, Ang II enhances the release of NA from sympathetic nerves of the rat prostate via a novel functional receptor distinct from the cloned AT(1a), AT(1b) or AT(2). These data provide direct evidence in support of a functional role for the local RAS in modulating sympathetic transmission in the prostate, which may have important implications for the pathophysiology of BPH.