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Y Feuermann, S J Mabjeesh, L Niv-Spector, D Levin and A Shamay

& Melmed 1997 ) and in cattle ( Accorsi et al. 2005 ). In a previous study, we demonstrated that prolactin can regulate leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in the bovine mammary gland ( Feuermann et al. 2004 ). We demonstrated that prolactin

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Dawid Szczepankiewicz, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Przemyslaw Kaczmarek, Marek Skrzypski, Karolina Andralojc, Tatiana Wojciechowicz, Maciej Sassek and Krzysztof W Nowak

was found that Agrp expression in the hypothalamus was inhibited by leptin ( Mizuno et al . 1999 ). During pregnancy, leptin level increased in the serum; however, mRNA level for the leptin receptor, both short and long forms, decreased ( Amico et

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Marc Schneeberger, Ramon Gomis and Marc Claret

. There are multiple leptin receptor (LEPR) isoforms, with the long form (LEPRb) being essential for the effects of leptin. The lack of leptin or LEPRb in both rodents and humans causes a phenotype characterized by hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure

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M G Gnanalingham, A Mostyn, J Wang, R Webb, D H Keisler, N Raver, M C Alves-Guerra, C Pecqueur, B Miroux, T Stephenson and M E Symonds

. 2002 , Litten et al. 2004 ). Leptin receptors are present in the β-cells of the pancreas, where UCP2 is also expressed ( Kieffer et al. 1996 , Chan et al. 1999 ). Leptin at physiological doses has been shown to inhibit both basal and

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M Szczesna, D A Zieba, B Klocek-Gorka, T Misztal and E Stepien

. Recent experiments have proven that auto-suppression by induction of negative feedback is crucial in the regulation of the interactions of these peptide hormones. Both the PRL receptor and the leptin receptor lack intrinsic enzymatic activity and mediate

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Waljit S Dhillo, Kevin G Murphy and Steve Bloom

ablation of the NPY/AgRP neurone in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus clearly demonstrates the importance of this neurone in energy homeostasis ( Flier 2006 ). Brain region-specific ablation of the leptin receptor has been used to try to tease apart the

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Isabela Teixeira Bonomo, Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Analaura Ribeiro Pereira, Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos and Egberto Gaspar de Moura

. Archives of Disease in Childhood 71 288 –290. Martin RL , Perez E, He YJ, Dawson R & Millard WJ 2000 Leptin resistance is associated with hypothalamic leptin receptor mRNA and protein down regulation. Metabolism 49

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Lauren E MacDonald, Sarah L Alderman, Sarah Kramer, Patrick T K Woo and Nicholas J Bernier

plasma leptin levels ( Myers et al . 2008 , Schneeberger et al . 2013 ). In common carp, chronic hypoxia leads to a gradual reduction in hypothalamic leptin receptor (lepr) mRNA expression ( Bernier et al . 2012 ). Similarly, changes in lepr

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Baiba Steinbrekera and Robert Roghair

). Further investigations continue to uncover downstream pathways that can be exploited to target the various effects leptin elicits in the normal physiologic state. For example, hypothalamic leptin receptor expression is found to play a critical role in

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M J Vazquez, I Velasco and M Tena-Sempere

, capable to integrate metabolic and nutritional signals, and to transmit them onto GnRH neurons. Indeed, despite their pivotal position as major output pathway of the reproductive brain, GnRH neurons seem to lack functional leptin receptors, as documented