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Ulrika Bergström, Charlotte Lindfors, Marie Svedberg, Jeanette E Johansen, Jenny Häggkvist, Martin Schalling, Rolf Wibom, Abram Katz and Ida A K Nilsson

in wt mice ( Fig. 3 ). The lower glucose uptake was observed in other areas of the brain, as well as in the liver ( Fig. 3 ). To assess whether hypometabolism also occurred under stress conditions, carbohydrate and energy metabolism were quantified in

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Zhengxiang Huang, Lili Huang, Chengjian Wang, Shanli Zhu, Xinzhou Qi, Yang Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Michael A Cowley, Johannes D Veldhuis and Chen Chen

Introduction Hormonal disturbance, in either secretion amount or function, often occurs in parallel with impairment of glucose/lipid/protein metabolism in obesity. Two pivotal hormones, insulin and growth hormone (GH), which synergistically

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Aoife Kiely, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt and Philip Newsholme

Introduction Nutrient metabolism is tightly coupled to insulin secretion in the pancreatic β cell ( McClenaghan 2007 ). Mitochondrial metabolism is crucial for the coupling of glucose and amino acid recognition to exocytosis of

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Ivan Quesada, Eva Tudurí, Cristina Ripoll and Ángel Nadal

concentration: while hypoglycaemic conditions induce α-cell secretion, β-cells release insulin when glucose levels increase ( Nadal et al . 1999 , Quesada et al . 2006 a ). Insulin and glucagon have opposite effects on glycaemia as well as on the metabolism

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Richard A Ehrhardt, Andreas Foskolos, Sarah L Giesy, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Christopher S Krumm, W Ronald Butler, Susan M Quirk, Matthew R Waldron and Yves R Boisclair

). Effect of increased plasma leptin on glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver and the whole animal Leptin therapy stimulates glucose utilization in various rodent models ( Kamohara et al . 1997 , Chinookoswong et al . 1999 ), but whether it is

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Daniel M Kelly and T Hugh Jones

understood and there are few published papers that have investigated potential mechanisms by which testosterone increases insulin sensitivity and regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. The major insulin-responsive target tissues, such as skeletal muscle

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Jose A Viscarra, Cory D Champagne, Daniel E Crocker and Rudy M Ortiz

Spranger J Pfeiffer A 2010 Improved insulin sensitivity, preserved beta cell function and improved whole-body glucose metabolism after low-dose growth hormone replacement therapy in adults with severe growth hormone deficiency: a pilot study

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Laura D Ratner, Guillermina Stevens, Maria Marta Bonaventura, Victoria A Lux-Lantos, Matti Poutanen, Ricardo S Calandra, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi and Susana B Rulli

mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism in adult hCGβ+ females. The short-term treatment with cabergoline was followed in order to assess whether hyperprolactinemia influenced metabolism

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Sara S Ellingwood and Alan Cheng

energetically unfavorable in the reverse direction. Figure 2 Schematic of the pathways linked to glycogen metabolism. Glycogen breakdown produces glucose-1-phosphate (via glycogenolysis) and glucose (via glycophagy and debranching enzyme activity). Both

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João Paulo G Camporez, Mohamed Asrih, Dongyan Zhang, Mario Kahn, Varman T Samuel, Michael J Jurczak and François R Jornayvaz

growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of glucose metabolism ( Kharitonenkov et al . 2005 ). FGF21 levels are increased in NAFLD and correlate with hepatic triglyceride content ( Li et al . 2010 ); therefore, FGF21 is considered an emergent