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Elena Maneschi, Annamaria Morelli, Sandra Filippi, Ilaria Cellai, Paolo Comeglio, Benedetta Mazzanti, Tommaso Mello, Alessandra Calcagno, Erica Sarchielli, Linda Vignozzi, Farid Saad, Roberto Vettor, Gabriella B Vannelli and Mario Maggi

. Negative staining controls were used in order to evaluate and subtract background. The diameter of adipocytes was measured using the Nikon Microphot-FXA microscope, considering the adipocytes more regularly spherical and using the program ImageJ. Hypoxia

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A M Carter, M J Kingston, K K Han, D M Mazzuca, K Nygard and V K M Han

action, whereas levels of the nonphosphorylated isoform of IGFBP-1 are similar in small and average for gestational age infants ( Iwashita et al. 1998 ). Circulating IGFBP-1 levels also rise in response to fetal hypoxia, and the Igfbp-1 gene has a

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P D Taylor, S G Hillier and H M Fraser

hypoxia, as seen in solid tumours ( Shweiki et al. 1992 ) and the endometrium ( Sharkey et al. 2000 ), occurring in granulosa cells in tertiary follicles deprived of gonadotrophic support requires to be investigated. However, this phenomenon does not

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Hélène Buteau-Lozano, Guillaume Velasco, Monique Cristofari, Patrick Balaguer and Martine Perrot-Applanat

factors such SP1/3 sites ( Stoner et al . 2004 ) and the hypoxia-responsive element ( Kazi et al . 2005 ), or through activation of kinase cascade pathways ( Yen et al . 2005 ), depending on the nature of cells and the microenvironment including

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Kok Lim Kua, Shanming Hu, Chunlin Wang, Jianrong Yao, Diana Dang, Alexander B Sawatzke, Jeffrey L Segar, Kai Wang and Andrew W Norris

hyperglycemic exposure, uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal hyperinsulinemia. Isolated uteroplacental insufficiency was examined because fetal hypoxia results from maternal diabetes, owing to a relative uteroplacental insufficiency via mechanisms that may

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Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Stephen J Lolait, Louise E Harris and George R Pope

, while in vitro ChIP analyses have shown that endogenous USF up-regulates the expression of apelin in the lactating rat breast ( Wang et al . 2006 ). Putative hypoxia response elements (HREs) are present in the apelin gene promoter and intron sequence

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Rhonda D Prisby

of interstitial fluid flow ( Johnson et al. 1996 ). Local environmental factors in bone modify blood vessel activity. In response to acute tissue hypoxia, local blood vessels increase tissue perfusion via enhanced vasodilator or diminished

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Hyunju Chung, Sanghee Seo, Minho Moon and Seungjoon Park

survival is associated with its ability to prevent the apoptosis induced by various insults. Several evidences suggest that endogenous IGF-I plays a significant role in recovery from insults such as hypoxia–ischemia ( Komoly et al. 1992 , Beilharz et al

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Yuriko Kitajima and Yusuke Ono

, resulting in hypoxia in skeletal muscle ( Gosker et al . 2000 ). Hypoxic conditions are well known to induce the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) in tissues including muscle ( Stroka et al . 2001 ). Overexpression of HIF1α leads to slow

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Pi-Jung Hsiao, Ming-Ying Lu, Feng-Yu Chiang, Shyi-Jang Shin, Yu-Da Tai and Suh-Hang Hank Juo

. 1999 , Stewart et al. 2001 , Woodward et al. 2005 ). Androgens can activate hypoxia inducible factor-1 ( Mabjeesh et al. 2003 ) which in turn translocates into nucleus to enhance VEGF expression ( Josko & Mazurek 2004 ). On the other hand