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Karsten Suhre

body, as they are revealed by studies of metabolic profiling in diabetes ( German et al . 2005 , Wenk 2005 ). Application of metabolomics approaches to metabolic disorders, especially diabetes, is particularly promising since deregulations of

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Haiyong Chen, Hui-Yao Lan, Dimitrios H Roukos, and William C Cho

Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 347 million people worldwide. The World Health Organization predicts that diabetes-related deaths could double between 2005 and 2030. The research conducted by American Diabetes Association estimated that

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Elizabeth S Barrie, Mels Lodder, Paul H Weinreb, Jill Buss, Amer Rajab, Christopher Adin, Qing-Sheng Mi, and Gregg A Hadley

Introduction Type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease caused by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, resulting in a hyperglycemic state. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice (NOD

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Emma Ahlqvist, Rashmi B Prasad, and Leif Groop

Heterogeneity of diabetes Present official classification of diabetes Diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes (T2D), is one of the fastest increasing diseases worldwide. However, under the term T2D, we lump together diseases with varying

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Johan G Eriksson

Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major, rapidly increasing global public health challenge. The number of adults with diabetes is estimated to have increased from 108 to 422 million between 1980 and 2014 making it one of the fastest

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Jennifer M Ikle and Anna L Gloyn

Introduction It was in the 1930s, after the discovery and first use of insulin, that Harold Percival Himsworth first made the distinction between type 1 and type 2 diabetes ( Bryder & Harper 2013 ). However, it was not until the 1970s

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Richard W Nelson and Claudia E Reusch

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder in dogs and cats, with a reported hospital prevalence rate of ∼0.4–1.2%. Classic clinical signs of diabetes include polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss. Clinical signs do not develop

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Che-Pei Kung and Maureen E Murphy

diabetes. Structure and function of the p53 tumor-suppressor protein p53 protein is made of 393 amino acids and uses a zinc-coordinated DNA-binding domain to bind in a sequence-specific manner to DNA consensus elements that contain two copies of the

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Bushra Taqui, Farzad Asadi, Evangelina Capobianco, Daniel Barry Hardy, Alicia Jawerbaum, and Edith Juliana Arany

Introduction The in utero environment plays an important role in the development of the fetus and the neonate ( Harris et al. 2017 , Marciniak et al. 2017 ). Pre-gestational diabetes affects organogenesis and increases the risk of

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John N Stabley, Rhonda D Prisby, Bradley J Behnke, and Michael D Delp

Introduction The increase in fracture risk observed among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been suggested to be associated with corollaries of the disease, such as peripheral neuropathy, decreased physical fitness, vision loss, and