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David R Grattan Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy, Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy, Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand

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Introduction When Geoffrey Harris wrote his influential monograph on ‘Neural Control of the Pituitary Gland’, it was already apparent that prolactin, or ‘lactogenic hormone’ as he referred to it, might be controlled differently to the other

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Alejandra Abeledo-Machado Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Pablo Anibal Pérez Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

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María Andrea Camilletti Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Erika Yanil Faraoni Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Florencia Picech Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

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Juan Pablo Petiti Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

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Silvina Gutiérrez Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

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Graciela Diaz-Torga Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Introduction Serum prolactin levels are low during the first 2 weeks of life, in both female and male rats, and then gradually increases until puberty. The progressive maturation of the neuroendocrine network involving both prolactin

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Alejandra Abeledo-Machado Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Dana Bornancini Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Milagros Peña-Zanoni Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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María Andrea Camilletti Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Erika Yanil Faraoni Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Graciela Díaz-Torga Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Introduction During the first 2 weeks of life, serum prolactin levels are low in both male and female rats. Then prolactin levels gradually increase until puberty due in part to the progressive maturation of the neuroendocrine network

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Yan Cao Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Zijie Feng Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Xin He Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Xuyao Zhang Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Bowen Xing Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Yuan Wu Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Taylor Hojnacki Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Bryson W Katona Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Jian Ma Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Xiaorong Zhan Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
Department of Endocrinology, Southern University of Science and Technology Hospital, Shenzhen, China

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Xianxin Hua Department of Cancer Biology, Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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is continually challenged by weight gain and increasing insulin resistance ( Xue et al. 2010 ). Hormones play a crucial role in this process, especially prolactin. Increased β-cell proliferation coincides with the increase in prolactin (PRL) and

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Jason P Breves Department of Biology, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York, USA

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Mayu Inokuchi Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Kāne‘ohe, Hawai‘i, USA
Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan

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Yoko Yamaguchi Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Kāne‘ohe, Hawai‘i, USA

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Andre P Seale Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Kāne‘ohe, Hawai‘i, USA

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Bethany L Hunt Department of Biology, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York, USA

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Soichi Watanabe Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan

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Darren T Lerner Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Kāne‘ohe, Hawai‘i, USA
University of Hawai‘i Sea Grant College Program, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, USA

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Toyoji Kaneko Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan

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E Gordon Grau Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Kāne‘ohe, Hawai‘i, USA

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( Kaneko et al. 2008 , Konno et al. 2010 ). Decades of comparative study have revealed that a conserved function for prolactin (Prl) across vertebrates is the regulation of ion and water transport ( Bole-Feysot et al. 1998 ). In teleosts, Prl

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Jinglin Zhang College of Veterinary Medicine, su, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiang
Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, The Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China

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Jie Gao State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

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Di Zhang College of Veterinary Medicine, su, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiang

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Hui Liu College of Veterinary Medicine, su, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiang

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Kemian Gou College of Veterinary Medicine, su, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiang
Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China

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Sheng Cui College of Veterinary Medicine, su, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiang
State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China
Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China

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Introduction Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone that is mainly synthesized and secreted from the anterior pituitary lactotrophs ( Freeman et al. 2000 , Cabrera-Reyes et al. 2017 ). With except the classical functions of PRL promoting

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Chengyuan Lin School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Clinical Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
YMU-HKBU Joint Laboratory of Traditional Natural Medicine, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, China

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Xue Jiang School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Mulan He School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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Ling Zhao Clinical Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

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Tao Huang Clinical Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

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Zhaoxiang Bian Clinical Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
YMU-HKBU Joint Laboratory of Traditional Natural Medicine, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, China

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Anderson O L Wong School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

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receptors can bind PACAP and VIP with similar affinity ( Vaudry et al . 2009 ). In mammals, VIP is well-documented as a stimulator for prolactin (PRL) release ( Christian et al . 2007 ) but the functional role of PACAP in PRL regulation is controversial

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G Boaventura
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G Casimiro-Lopes
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C C Pazos-Moura Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, 5° Andar, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030, Brazil

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E Oliveira
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P C Lisboa
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E G Moura
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maternal prolactin (PRL) with the dopamine agonist bromo-α-ergocryptine (Bro). This method programs for obesity, hyperleptinemia, leptin resistance ( Bonomo et al . 2007 ), and hypothyroidism ( Bonomo et al . 2008 ), and symptoms (including insulin

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Laura D Ratner Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Guillermina Stevens Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Hospital General de Agudos J. M. Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Maria Marta Bonaventura Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Victoria A Lux-Lantos Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Matti Poutanen Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Turku Center for Disease Modeling, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

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Ricardo S Calandra Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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Ilpo T Huhtaniemi Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK

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Susana B Rulli Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental- Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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linked to insulin resistance, since insulin promotes fat cell differentiation, enhances adipocyte glucose uptake, and inhibits adipocyte lipolysis. Although the role of prolactin in reproduction is well known, the participation of this hormone in weight

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E Y Faraoni Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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A I Abeledo Machado Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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P A Pérez Centro de Microscopia Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

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C A Marcial López Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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M A Camilletti Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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M Peña-Zanoni Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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S B Rulli Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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S Gutiérrez Centro de Microscopia Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina

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G Díaz-Torga Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

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treatment of prolactinomas are to normalize prolactin levels in order to restore fertility and sexual function, to reduce the tumour mass to potentially relieve the visual defects and headaches and to preserve the residual pituitary function ( Liu

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