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Dominique A Glauser Fondation pour Recherches Médicales, University of Geneva, Av. de la Roseraie 64, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland

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Werner Schlegel Fondation pour Recherches Médicales, University of Geneva, Av. de la Roseraie 64, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland

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Part I: introduction to FOXO transcription factors Classification and structure of FOXO proteins FOXO transcription factors form a subclass of the large family of Forkhead proteins characterized by the

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David W Scoville Cell Biology Group, Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

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Kristin Lichti-Kaiser Cell Biology Group, Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

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Sara A Grimm Integrative Bioinformatics Support Group, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

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Anton M Jetten Cell Biology Group, Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

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these results to publicly available data on the genomic binding of several other islet-enriched transcription factors, in order to determine whether GLIS3 regulates pancreatic beta cell gene transcription by binding to distinct regulatory hubs with other

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Jinwon Eo
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Kyuyong Han
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Kenneth M Murphy Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Reproductive Biology and Infertility, RCTC, IBST, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-Dong, Kwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701, South Korea
Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Reproductive Biology and Infertility, RCTC, IBST, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-Dong, Kwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701, South Korea

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Haengseok Song Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Reproductive Biology and Infertility, RCTC, IBST, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-Dong, Kwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-701, South Korea

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Hyunjung Jade Lim
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( Hagglund et al . 1999 ). Etv4 transcription factors belong to superfamily of E26 transformation-specific (Ets) transcription factors. The Ets transcription factors regulate expression of target genes by binding to a ∼10 bp element in the promoters of

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Jinke Wang The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, People's Republic of China

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Jie Lu The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, People's Republic of China

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Guangming Gu The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, People's Republic of China

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Yingxun Liu The State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, People's Republic of China

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Introduction Transcription factors (TFs) are central to almost every fundamental cellular process ( Latchman 2008 , Ladunga 2010 ) and account for ∼5–10% of genes in eukaryotes ( Reece-Hoyes et al . 2005 , Adryan & Teichmann 2006 , Ho et al

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Michael Mannstadt Endocrine Unit, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thier 1051, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA

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Emily Holick Endocrine Unit, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thier 1051, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA

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Wenping Zhao Endocrine Unit, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thier 1051, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA

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Harald Jüppner Endocrine Unit, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thier 1051, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
Endocrine Unit, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Thier 1051, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA

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orthologs of the Drosophila gene glial cells missing) is a transcription factor which is exclusively expressed during embryonic development in the parathyroid-specific domain that later gives rise to the parathyroid glands ( Kim et al . 1998 , Günther

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Débora Cristina de Moraes
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Mario Vaisman Laboratório de Endocrinologia Molecular, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, s/n, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21949-900, Brasil

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Flavia Lucia Conceição Laboratório de Endocrinologia Molecular, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, s/n, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21949-900, Brasil

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Tânia Maria Ortiga-Carvalho
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( Kioussi et al . 1999 ), Tpit ( Lamolet et al . 2001 ) and Prop1 ( Sornson et al . 1996 ). Figure 2 Temporal and spatial activation of pituitary transcription factors. In response to the BMP2–FGF8 ventral–dorsal gradient, pituitary cell lineages are

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L Grinius Department of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA

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C Kessler Department of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA

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J Schroeder Department of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA

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S Handwerger Department of Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital Medical Center and Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA

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Introduction Transcription factors of the forkhead (FOXO) family of DNA-binding proteins are involved in regulation of diverse cellular functions, such as differentiation, metabolism, proliferation, and survival (for review see

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Sharon Maor Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Group on Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Laboratory of Genomic Applications, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Department of Oncological Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel

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Doris Mayer Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Group on Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Laboratory of Genomic Applications, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Department of Oncological Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel

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Ronit I Yarden Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Group on Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Laboratory of Genomic Applications, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Department of Oncological Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel

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Adrian V Lee Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Group on Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Laboratory of Genomic Applications, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Department of Oncological Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel

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Rive Sarfstein Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Group on Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Laboratory of Genomic Applications, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Department of Oncological Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel

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Haim Werner Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Group on Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Laboratory of Genomic Applications, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Department of Oncological Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel

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Moshe Z Papa Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
Group on Hormones and Signal Transduction, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg D-69120, Germany
Laboratory of Genomic Applications, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel
Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Department of Oncological Surgery, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer 52621, Israel

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flanking the transcription start site is extremely GC-rich, and contains numerous potential binding sites for transcription factor Sp1, a zinc-finger-containing nuclear protein that has been shown to strongly transactivate the IGF-IR promoter ( Beitner

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Eric W-F Lam Cancer Research-UK Laboratories, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Division of Cancer and

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Kunal Shah Cancer Research-UK Laboratories, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Division of Cancer and

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Jan J Brosens Cancer Research-UK Laboratories, Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Division of Cancer and

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. 2002 a , b ), also play a vital role in determining and fine-tuning the transcriptional responses in target cells. Furthermore, certain factors have emerged as important for safeguarding genomic integrity and tissue homeostasis during these rapid cycles

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S Eleswarapu Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

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H Jiang Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA

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pyruvate kinase C and glucose transporter GLUT-2 ( Valera et al. 1993 ), as well as the transcription factors c-fos and c-jun ( Gronowski & Rotwein 1995 ). More recent gene expression studies employing the microarray technology have identified many more

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