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Eva B Nygaard, Cathrine Ørskov, Thomas Almdal, Henrik Vestergaard and Birgitte Andersen

Introduction Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was identified by Nishimura in 2000 ( Nishimura et al . 2000 ) and is mainly expressed in liver and pancreas ( Fon Tacer et al . 2010 ). FGF21 belongs to the FGF19 subfamily of endocrine FGFs

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Jay W Porter, Joe L Rowles III, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield II, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla and Victoria J Vieira-Potter

adaptations are not completely understood. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a pleotropic endocrine hormone produced by several tissues, plays an important role in systemic glucose and lipid metabolism ( Kharitonenkov et al . 2005 , Zhang et al . 2008

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Michelle M Chen, Clarence Hale, Shanaka Stanislaus, Jing Xu and Murielle M Véniant

Introduction Among the 22 fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) identified in humans, FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, which belong to the FGF19 subfamily, are vastly different from other FGFs and are primarily involved in the regulation of metabolic

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João Paulo G Camporez, Mohamed Asrih, Dongyan Zhang, Mario Kahn, Varman T Samuel, Michael J Jurczak and François R Jornayvaz

growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of glucose metabolism ( Kharitonenkov et al . 2005 ). FGF21 levels are increased in NAFLD and correlate with hepatic triglyceride content ( Li et al . 2010 ); therefore, FGF21 is considered an emergent

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Kook Hwan Kim and Myung-Shik Lee

response to changes in nutritional status. Emerging evidence has suggested that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) could also be an endocrine hormone contributing to the metabolic homeostasis. The FGF21 gene was cloned as the 21st member of the FGF family

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Seul Gi Kang, Hyon-Seung Yi, Min Jeong Choi, Min Jeong Ryu, Saetbyel Jung, Hyo Kyun Chung, Joon Young Chang, Yong Kyung Kim, Seong Eun Lee, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Hoil Choi, Dong Seok Kim, Ju Hee Lee, Koon Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Chul-Ho Lee, Yuichi Oike and Minho Shong

. elegans ( Durieux et al . 2011 ). However, the induction of secreted factors as a result of reduced mitochondrial OXPHOS function has not been fully established in mammals. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has long been studied as a critical

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Sarah Teillon, German A Calderon and Maribel Rios

growth factor 21 ( Fgf21 ), were shown to be essential for hepatic lipid oxidation, triglyceride clearance, and improved insulin sensitivity following high-fat (HF) dietary intake ( Kharitonenkov et al . 2005 , 2007 , Badman et al . 2007 , Xu et al

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Susan Kralisch, Anke Tönjes, Kerstin Krause, Judit Richter, Ulrike Lossner, Peter Kovacs, Thomas Ebert, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll and Mathias Fasshauer

Introduction Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a member of the FGF family including 22 members ( Beenken & Mohammadi 2009 ). FGF21 is mainly produced by the liver but also by other tissues including white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle

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Ricardo J Samms, Michelle Murphy, Maxine J Fowler, Scott Cooper, Paul Emmerson, Tamer Coskun, Andrew C Adams, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Francis J P Ebling and Kostas Tsintzas

Introduction Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily that plays a key role in the regulation of carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism ( Kharitonenkov & Adams 2014 ). The primary

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Aijun Zhang, Douglas H Sieglaff, Jean Philippe York, Ji Ho Suh, Stephen D Ayers, Glenn E Winnier, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Christopher Pin, Pumin Zhang, Paul Webb and Xuefeng Xia

Introduction Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is one of three endocrine FGFs that influence metabolic responses via a combination of local and systemic actions. FGF21 is expressed in the liver, pancreas, and white and brown adipose tissue