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María Florencia Heber, Silvana Rocío Ferreira, Giselle Adriana Abruzzese, Raíces Trinidad, Omar P Pignataro, Margarita Vega and Alicia B Motta

metabolic action ( Rincon et al. 1996 , Diamanti-Kandarakis & Dunaif 2012 ). It has been proposed that insulin resistance is caused by a post-binding defect in the insulin signaling pathway and/or related to mutations in the insulin receptor ( IR ) gene

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Sojin Lee and H Henry Dong

, kidney, muscle and adipose tissues, a broad tissue distribution that is characteristic of other FoxO isoforms in mammals ( Kim et al. 2011 ). Recent studies indicate that FoxO6 plays important roles in integrating insulin signaling to glucose and lipid

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Hong Ma, Jin Yuan, Jinyu Ma, Jie Ding, Weiwei Lin, Xinlei Wang, Mingliang Zhang, Yi Sun, Runze Wu, Chun Liu, Cheng Sun and Yunjuan Gu

deletion of BMP7 receptor type 1A in adipose tissue attenuates age-related onset of insulin resistance ( Schulz et al. 2016 ). Thus, it is still unclear whether and how BMP7 regulates insulin signal transduction in the liver. In this study, we increased

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Li Li, Xiaohua Li, Wenjun Zhou and Joseph L Messina

insulin signaling pathways ( Lillioja et al . 1988 , Pessin & Saltiel 2000 , Shulman 2000 , Saltiel & Kahn 2001 ). Insulin resistance is present not only in peripheral tissues such as the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, but also in the brain where

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Young Hoon Son, Seok-Jin Lee, Ki-Baek Lee, Jin-Haeng Lee, Eui Man Jeong, Sun Gun Chung, Sang-Chul Park and In-Gyu Kim

hypertriglyceridemia ( Gazzerro et al . 2010 ). Moreover, we have demonstrated that the level of CAV1 in skeletal muscle is related to insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo ( Oh et al . 2008 ), indicating that CAV1 may regulate insulin signaling. Notably, Cav

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Adam Gesing, Andrzej Bartke and Michal M Masternak

cardiovascular events ( Lincoff et al . 2007 ). The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of PIO on the insulin-signaling pathway (hepatic levels of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) – total and phosphorylated at a serine(307

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Joëlle Dupont, Sophie Tesseraud, Michel Derouet, Anne Collin, Nicole Rideau, Sabine Crochet, Estelle Godet, Estelle Cailleau-Audouin, Sonia Métayer-Coustard, Michel J Duclos, Christian Gespach, Tom E Porter, Larry A Cogburn and Jean Simon

pectoral muscle, a pure glycolytic-type muscle ( Duchêne et al . 2008 c ). To better understand the mechanisms of insulin action in chicken muscle, other components of insulin signaling have been recently characterized, namely the PKB/Akt, P70S6K1, and ERK

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Cynthia L Blanco, Alvaro G Moreira, Lisa L McGill-Vargas, Diana G Anzueto, Peter Nathanielsz and Nicolas Musi

exposure during pregnancy impacts placental growth factors and insulin signaling pathways during late gestation ( Ain et al . 2005 , Jellyman et al . 2012 ). In the fetal sheep, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was increased in skeletal muscle when GCs were

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Bruno C Pereira, Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, José R Pauli, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas and Adelino S R da Silva

& Kahn 1994 , Cheatham & Kahn 1995 , Virkamaki et al . 1999 ). A growing body of evidence suggests that the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307 is directly linked to the molecular mechanism responsible of the impairment of insulin signaling pathway

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Parsanathan Rajesh and Karundevi Balasubramanian

of insulin receptors and glucose oxidation in cultured Chang liver cells and L6 myotubes ( Rengarajan et al . 2007 , Rajesh & Balasubramanian 2013 ). Furthermore, DEHP treatment of adult albino rats disrupts insulin signalling molecules, glucose