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Yoko Yagishita, Akira Uruno, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Thomas W Kensler and Masayuki Yamamoto

Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) plays a critical role in cellular responses to oxidative and electrophilic stresses ( Itoh et al . 1995 ). In quiescent conditions, Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) suppresses Nrf2 activity by serving as a

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Gen Chen, Xiangjuan Chen, Chao Niu, Xiaozhong Huang, Ning An, Jia Sun, Shuai Huang, Weijian Ye, Santie Li, Yingjie Shen, Jiaojiao Liang, Weitao Cong and Litai Jin

-inflammatory cytokines such as IL6 , IL8 and TNFa ( Tang et al. 2017 ). Therefore, protecting vascular cells from oxidative stress injury is a major approach in the treatment of diabetic complications ( Rask-Madsen & King 2013 ). Nrf2 is one of the most

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Bo Chen, Yanrong Lu, Younan Chen and Jingqiu Cheng

activity is disrupted, it is no longer possible to maintain appropriate redox balance. Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor with a high sensitivity to oxidative stress, binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in the

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Wenpeng Dong, Ye Jia, Xiuxia Liu, Huan Zhang, Tie Li, Wenlin Huang, Xudong Chen, Fuchun Wang, Weixia Sun and Hao Wu

2-related factor 2 (NRF2) has been identified as a governor of antioxidant and redox signaling. NRF2 activates the transcription of downstream antioxidant genes such as heme oxygenase-1 ( Ho1 ) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 ( Nqo1 ) ( Ruiz et

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Ziping Jiang, Junduo Wu, Fuzhe Ma, Jun Jiang, Linlin Xu, Lei Du, Wenlin Huang, Zhaohui Wang, Ye Jia, Laijin Lu and Hao Wu

, enhancing OS ( Betteridge 2000 , Incalza et al . 2018 ). This has brought to light the activation of the antioxidant defense system as a viable strategy to improve diabetic ED ( Laight et al . 2000 ). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2

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Jia Sun, Haiping Zhu, Xiaorong Wang, Qiuqi Gao, Zhuoying Li and Huiya Huang

that CoQ10, as an effective antioxidant in mitochondria, exerts beneficial effects in DN via mitophagy through restoration of Nrf2/ARE signaling. Thus, a novel role of CoQ10 in alleviating DN-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by modulating mitophagy is

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Anna E Bollag, Tianyang Guo, Ke-Hong Ding, Vivek Choudhary, Xunsheng Chen, Qing Zhong, Jianrui Xu, Kanglun Yu, Mohamed E Awad, Mohammed Elsalanty, Maribeth H Johnson, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Wendy B Bollag and Carlos M Isales

the effects of various endogenous antioxidant systems upregulated by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF2), which is known to induce the expression of various endogenous antioxidant pathways ( de Figueiredo et al. 2015

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Chao Li, Bin Yang, Zhihao Xu, Eric Boivin, Mazzen Black, Wenlong Huang, Baoyou Xu, Ping Wu, Bo Zhang, Xian Li, Kunsong Chen, Yulian Wu and Gina R Rayat

factor NRF2 and the subsequent NRF2/HO1 signaling pathway ( Zhang et al . 2013 ). In vivo study also demonstrated that C3G protected β cells against oxidative stress-mediated injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice ( Sun et al . 2012

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Gonzalo Alba, Consuelo Santa-María, María Edith Reyes-Quiroz, Rajaa El Bekay, Isabel Geniz, José Martín-Nieto, Elizabeth Pintado and Francisco Sobrino

, USA). Antibodies to HO1 (sc-10789) and Nrf2 (sc-722) were from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Isolation and culture of human neutrophils Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated from fresh heparinized blood of human donors by

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Keerati Wanchai, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Wannipa Tunapong, Titikorn Chunchai, Parameth Thiennimitr, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Siriporn Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn and Anusorn Lungkaphin

mechanism, which is controlled by the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway. Increased cellular ROS production leads to dissociation of the Keap1 proteins from Nrf2, results in Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus and activates the expression of antioxidant enzymes