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Bee K Tan, Jing Chen, Raghu Adya, Manjunath Ramanjaneya, Vanlata Patel, and Harpal S Randeva

central/visceral body fat. Adipose tissue produces several cytokines termed ‘adipokines’ that have extensive effects, which are crucial for the development of insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis ( Kershaw & Flier 2004 ). Furthermore, the

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Bee K Tan, Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Joseph Paul O'Hare, and Harpal S Randeva

adipokines’ that are implicated in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, T2DM and cardiovascular disease ( Kershaw & Flier 2004 ). Adipolin (CTRP12) is a novel adipokine, abundantly expressed in adipose tissue, higher in subcutaneous compared with

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Yanli Miao, Haojie Qin, Yi Zhong, Kai Huang, and Caijun Rao

organ that secretes a variety of 'adipokines' including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and asprosin ( Fasshauer & Bluher 2015 ). Asprosin, the c-terminal propeptide of FBN1 ( Muthu & Reinhardt 2020 ), is a novel adipokine secreted mainly by white adipose

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Elena Grossini, Flavia Prodam, Gillian Elisabeth Walker, Lorenzo Sigaudo, Serena Farruggio, Kevin Bellofatto, Patrizia Marotta, Claudio Molinari, David Mary, Gianni Bona, and Giovanni Vacca

this respect, it is suggested that adipokines produced by adipose tissue would act as local ‘vasocrine’ agents in influencing a wide spectrum of hemodynamic, metabolic, and immunologic factors, including vascular reactivity, endothelial dysfunction, and

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Gulizar Issa Ameen and Silvia Mora

important role in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis and thus in maintaining health. WAT is a dynamic tissue that stores surplus energy in the form of triglycerides, but it also produces a plethora of bioactive molecules collectively called adipokines

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Lei Li, Ping Ma, Chen Huang, Yongjun Liu, Ye Zhang, Chen Gao, Tianxia Xiao, Pei-Gen Ren, Brian A Zabel, and Jian V Zhang

) ( Meder et al . 2003 , Wittamer et al . 2003 , Zabel et al . 2005 b ). It was subsequently identified as a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, with high expression levels in white adipose tissue ( Goralski et al

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Haiming Cao

adipokines Obesity is the expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT), the most effective lipid storage organ in the body. In obese subjects, white adipocytes in WAT have increased release of free fatty acids (FFAs) through lipolysis process leading to elevated

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Min Liu, Shuo Xie, Weiwei Liu, Jingjin Li, Chao Li, Wei Huang, Hexin Li, Jinghai Song, and Hong Zhang

plays a very significant endocrine role, secreting numerous molecules including metabolites, lipids, and bioactive peptides known as ‘adipokines’, which exert regulatory functions. Adipose tissue dysfunction leads to deregulation of adipokine secretion

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Harman S Mattu and Harpal S Randeva

chemical mediators, termed adipocytokines or adipokines. The discovery of leptin in 1994 heralded a new era in the study of WAT and the discovery of a number of adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, apelin, omentin, chemerin

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Gisela Helfer and Qing-Feng Wu

Introduction Adipokines, secreted by adipose tissue, are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome ( Lehr et al . 2012 ). Chemerin, encoded by the gene retinoic acid receptor responder 2 ( Rarres2 ), also known as tazarotene