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Hiroto Kobayashi, Saori Yoshida, Ying-Jie Sun, Nobuyuki Shirasawa, and Akira Naito

steroidogenesis, progesterone is converted into estradiol-17β (E 2 ) via androgens, enzymes, 17α-hydroxylase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and aromatase. Though the aromatase activity in testicular Sertoli cells and granulose cells of the ovary is

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Majdi Masarwi, Raanan Shamir, Moshe Phillip, and Galia Gat-Yablonski

) ( Smith et al . 1994 ) or aromatase ( CYP19A1 ) ( Carani et al . 1997 ), in addition to animal experiments ( Chagin et al . 2007 ). In males, most estrogen is synthesized by peripheral tissues through local aromatization of circulating androgens

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Kimberley D Katleba, Erin L Legacki, Alan J Conley, and Trish Berger

by the widespread aromatase enzyme ( Bondesson et al . 2015 ). The discovery of the crucial role of estrogen-mediated fluid resorption in efferent ducts of mice, albeit not in all species, generated awareness of estrogen-mediated events in male

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Douglas A Gibson, Ioannis Simitsidellis, Frances Collins, and Philippa T K Saunders

sulphate moieties from E1S. Using an in vitro model of decidualisation, we have confirmed expression of both STS and aromatase ( CYP19A1 ) in endometrial stromal cells with evidence that both enzymes contribute to production of oestrogens during

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Ruijuan Gao, Lijuan Zhao, Xichun Liu, Brian G Rowan, Martin Wabitsch, Dean P Edwards, Yoshihiro Nishi, Toshihiko Yanase, Qun Yu, and Yan Dong

Introduction Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) is the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, and is responsible for converting androgens to estrogens ( Simpson et al . 1994 ). In premenopausal women, aromatase is predominantly expressed in ovarian

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Ana María Pino, Juan Manuel Rodríguez, Susana Ríos, Pablo Astudillo, Laura Leiva, Germán Seitz, Mireya Fernández, and J Pablo Rodríguez

( Gambacciani et al. 1997 , Justesen et al. 2001 ). The directive effect of oestrogen on the skeleton is supported by the developmental failure of bone in males with deficient oestrogen activity as a result of oestrogen receptor dysfunction or aromatase

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Quan Wu, Ying Zhou, Linfeng Chen, Jiandang Shi, Chun-Yu Wang, Lin Miao, Helmut Klocker, Irwin Park, Chung Lee, and Ju Zhang

). The increased expression of aromatase disrupts the balance of estrogen/ androgen in the prostate. Therefore, the estrogen-dominant status in men after middle age has been implicated in the induction and progression of BPH ( Shibata et al. 2000

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Katsumi Toda, Teruhiko Okada, Yoshihiro Hayashi, and Toshiji Saibara

gonadotropins, they have been shown to directly regulate testicular functions ( Simpson et al . 1994 , Carreau et al . 2006 , Ebling et al . 2006 ). Estrogens are synthesized by an enzyme complex, aromatase, through the conversion of androgens to estrogens

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Anurag Bajpai, Peter J Simm, Stephen J McPherson, Vincenzo C Russo, Walid J Azar, John D Wark, Gail P Risbridger, and George A Werther

Introduction The crucial role of oestrogen in mediating epiphyseal fusion in males was established by classical reports of men with defective oestrogen synthesis (aromatase deficiency; Morishima et al . 1995 ) and action (oestrogen receptor α

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Masatada Watanabe, Mariko Noda, and Shizuo Nakajin

Introduction There have been reports indicating that tumors which secrete abnormally high levels of estrogen cause gynecomastia in boys and men and precocious puberty in girls. In these cases, cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19), the