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Gemma Llauradó, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carme Vilardell, Rafael Simó, Pilar Gil, Albert Cano, Joan Vendrell and José-Miguel González-Clemente

factors. As a result, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular events in type 1 diabetes are not completely understood. Arterial stiffness (AS) is an early sign of arteriosclerosis ( Cavalcante et al . 2011 ) and predicts cardiovascular

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Yasumasa Ikeda, Ken-ichi Aihara, Sumiko Yoshida, Masashi Akaike and Toshio Matsumoto

et al . 2010 ) and that suppression of testosterone production increases arterial stiffness ( Dockery et al . 2003 ). In addition, testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to improve arterial stiffness in elderly hypogonadal men ( Yaron et al

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R H Straub, L B Tankó, C Christiansen, P J Larsen and D S Jessop

versus favorable) associations with arterial stiffness? The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89 2632 – 2639 . Gordon CM LeBoff MS Glowacki J 2001 Adrenal and gonadal steroids

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Åsa Tivesten, Anna Barlind, Kenneth Caidahl, Natalia Klintland, Antonio Cittadini, Claes Ohlsson and Jörgen Isgaard

. 2000 ), arterial stiffness ( Smith et al. 2002 ), endothelial and/or endothelium-independent vasodilation ( Rossoni et al. 1999 , Evans et al. 2000 , Capaldo et al. 2001 ), and may reverse markers of early atherosclerosis ( Pfeifer et al

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Daniel M Kelly and T Hugh Jones

independent negative predictor for developing arterial stiffness, assessed from the peak systolic and end diastolic diameters of the common carotid artery and simultaneous brachial artery blood pressure ( Hougaku et al . 2006 ). This association remained

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Sieneke Labruijere, E Leonie A F van Houten, René de Vries, Usha M Musterd-Bagghoe, Ingrid M Garrelds, Piet Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Carlos M Villalón, Jenny A Visser and Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink

oxidation and thereby prevents the negative effects of LDL. Furthermore, hypertensive, but not normotensive, PCOS women displayed increased arterial stiffness ( Sasaki et al . 2011 ). Taken together, these studies suggest that women with PCOS have impaired

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Xiaojun Zhou, Jianjun Dong, Li Zhang, Ju Liu, Xiaofeng Dong, Qing Yang, Fupeng Liu and Lin Liao

ameliorates atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in Apo E −/− mice and rabbits fed a high fat and cholesterol diet . Circulation 129 2403 – 2413 . ( doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.007559 ) Delbin MA Trask AJ 2014 The diabetic vasculature

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Harman S Mattu and Harpal S Randeva

pathways Human in vitro (EC) Kaur et al . (2010) Associated with arterial stiffness Human plasma Yoo et al . (2012) ↑ET-1- and PE-induced contractility Rat ex vivo Lobato et al . (2012) ↓Vascular inflammation Human in vitro (EC) Yamawaki et al

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V L Clifton, R Crompton, M A Read, P G Gibson, R Smith and I M R Wright

-dependent flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery by sex and menstrual cycle. Circulation 92 3431 –3435. Hu J , Norman M, Wallensteen M & Gennser G 1998 Increased large arterial stiffness and impaired acetylcholine

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Hiroyuki Shimizu, Kinji Inoue and Masatomo Mori

: opposite (adverse versus favorable) association with arterial stiffness? The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89 2632 –2639. Flier JS 2004 Obesity wars