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R Dobie, V E MacRae, C Huesa, R van't Hof, S F Ahmed, and C Farquharson

Roith et al . 2001 ). The intimate relationship between GH and IGF1 makes it difficult to deduce the relative contributions of systemic and locally derived IGF1 to bone accrual. While Ghr −/− mice have recognised changes in skeletal mass and

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Maryam Iravani, Marie Lagerquist, Claes Ohlsson, and Lars Sävendahl

Introduction Longitudinal bone growth takes place in the growth plate, consisting of three layers: resting zone, proliferative zone and the hypertrophic zone. Bone growth is regulated by estrogens, acting either indirectly via the GH

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Bernard Freudenthal, John Logan, Sanger Institute Mouse Pipelines, Peter I Croucher, Graham R Williams, and J H Duncan Bassett

al . 2009 ). The most important risk factors for osteoporotic fracture are low bone mineral density (BMD) (clinically assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA)), increasing age and history of fracture ( Johnell et al . 2005

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Cátia F Gonçalves and Qing-Jun Meng

their precise spatial and temporal control. Remarkably, physiological functions such as longitudinal bone growth, bone remodelling, chondrocyte metabolism and cartilage matrix turnover exhibit 24-h rhythms, being controlled by the peripheral circadian

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M J Devlin, D J Brooks, C Conlon, M van Vliet, L Louis, C J Rosen, and M L Bouxsein

Introduction Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a complex and dynamic depot that likely includes both constitutive and regulated cell populations ( Devlin & Rosen 2015 , Scheller et al . 2015 ). MAT accumulation is a normal component of

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K A Staines, A S Pollard, I M McGonnell, C Farquharson, and A A Pitsillides

Introduction The transition of cartilage to bone is the basis by which all long bones form. This transition is tightly regulated to ensure both permissive foetal development through endochondral ossification and postnatal longitudinal growth at the

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Lara H Sattgast, Adam J Branscum, Natali Newman, Steven W Gonzales, Mary Lauren Benton, Erich J Baker, Kathleen A Grant, Russell T Turner, and Urszula T Iwaniec

Introduction Long-term, chronic alcohol consumption can lead to suppression of bone turnover, and rapid changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover have been observed within hours following acute alcohol intake. Specifically, in healthy

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Lucia Zhang, Kathy K Lee, Kim S Sugamori, Marc D Grynpas, and Jane Mitchell

Introduction Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released in response to low levels of serum calcium and plays an essential role in the maintenance of extracellular calcium homeostasis and does so, in part, through its modulation of bone remodelling

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Anna E Bollag, Tianyang Guo, Ke-Hong Ding, Vivek Choudhary, Xunsheng Chen, Qing Zhong, Jianrui Xu, Kanglun Yu, Mohamed E Awad, Mohammed Elsalanty, Maribeth H Johnson, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Wendy B Bollag, and Carlos M Isales

Introduction Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and bone loss commonly associated with age. Bone loss results in reduced bone strength and increased fracture risk, which is a growing problem among elderly individuals

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Kristin M Aasarød, Masoud Ramezanzadehkoldeh, Maziar Shabestari, Mats P Mosti, Astrid K Stunes, Janne E Reseland, Vidar Beisvag, Erik Fink Eriksen, Arne K Sandvik, Reinhold G Erben, Christiane Schüler, Malcolm Boyce, Bjørn H Skallerud, Unni Syversen, and Reidar Fossmark

associated with increased fracture risk, whereas use of histamine 2 receptor antagonists was associated with reduced risk. Both animal and clinical studies have revealed an association between PPI use and a reduction in bone mineral density (BMD). Our group