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Yuhui Liu, Le Zhang, Jing Li, Zhongyan Shan and Weiping Teng

hormone deficiency in female rats with marginal iodine deficiency has a negative impact on BDNF and can further influence the brain development of offspring. Egr1 belongs to the early growth reactive protein family and is also referred to as krox24 or Zif

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Praveen Kumar, Vishwa Mohan, Rohit Anthony Sinha, Megha Chagtoo and Madan M Godbole

unliganded TRs, we hypothesized that inhibiting HDAC activity would block the negative regulation of target genes by unliganded TRs and may restore normal brain development under hypothyroidism. Using rat model of perinatal hypothyroidism, we here demonstrate

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Meredith A Kelleher, Hannah K Palliser, David W Walker and Jonathan J Hirst

( Lackman et al . 2001 ). Placental insufficiency and IUGR have many implications for foetal brain development. Along with clinical observations, animal studies have also revealed the morphological changes and neurological impairments associated with foetal

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Some developmental and functional manifestations of thyroxine (T4) administered on the first 2 days of postnatal life were studied in the female rat. Brain myelinogenesis estimated by brain esterified cholesterol concentration, and brain myelin age estimated by brain total cholesterol concentration, were subsequently determined. Thyroxine treatment resulted in a greater concentration of esterified cholesterol in the brain than saline treatment, but the latter appeared to delay the normal increase shown by non-injected controls. Thyroxine treatment resulted in total and free cholesterol levels similar to those of non-injected controls, these again being greater than those in saline-treated rats. Cholesterol concentrations in liver and serum were not affected by T4 or saline treatment.

Administration of T4 to female rats before administration of 1·25 mg testosterone propionate on day 7 resulted in an ovarian and uterine weight response to human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG, 1 i.u./day on days 23–26) on day 27 that was greater than that in litter-mates given saline at birth before testosterone propionate and HCG treatment. Postnatal T4 treatment alone in the female was also associated with a reduced thyroid and pituitary gland enlargement after 7 days of propylthiouracil feeding (0·015% in tap water, days 24–31 of life) when compared with either saline or non-injected controls.

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Huali Yu, Ye Guo, Yang Zhao, Feng Zhou, Kehan Zhao, Mayuqing Li, Junxiong Wen, Zixuan He, Xiaojuan Zhu and Xiaoxiao He

brain development and function. For instance, maternal stress-triggered GC elevation changes the fetal brain structure, leading to attention and learning deficits in adulthood ( Weinstock 2008 ). Prenatal stress is highly associated with increased

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Ángel Enrique Céspedes Rubio, Maria José Pérez-Alvarez, Catalina Lapuente Chala and Francisco Wandosell

. 2001 ). Estradiol has an important impact on brain development and normal physiology, but also after injury. Cellular targets of its action are both neurons and the main glial cell types (astrocytes, microglia, radial glia and oligodendrocytes

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S Van der Geyten and V M Darras

beyond postnatal day 12 results in abnormal adult pyramidal cells ( Anderson et al. 2003 ). These observations indicated that not only thus does there exist a narrow window in time during which brain development is thyroid hormone sensitive ( Bernal

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Han Yan, Matthew Mitschelen, Georgina V Bixler, Robert M Brucklacher, Julie A Farley, Song Han, Willard M Freeman and William E Sonntag

IGF1 deficiency and replacement on brain gene expression that we expect contribute to long-term modifications in brain development, function, learning and memory. To this end, we used a unique model of GH/IGF1 deficiency (the Lewis dwarf ( dw/dw ) rat

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A J Conley, R M Bernstein and A D Nguyen

. 2009 ), it has been proposed that the evolution of adrenarche extended the maturation of the human brain ( Campbell 2011 ). If this is true, then correlations between the onset (adrenarche) of adrenal androgen secretion and brain development would be

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Shiao Y Chan, Laura A Hancox, Azucena Martín-Santos, Laurence S Loubière, Merlin N M Walter, Ana-Maria González, Phillip M Cox, Ann Logan, Christopher J McCabe, Jayne A Franklyn and Mark D Kilby

8 (MCT8) gene . American Journal of Human Genetics 77 41 – 53 . ( doi:10.1086/431313 ) Tolsa CB Zimine S Warfield SK Freschi M Sancho RA Lazeyras F Hanquinet S Pfizenmaier M Huppi PS 2004 Early alteration of structural and functional brain