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Vikki L Poole and Christopher J McCabe

Introduction Based on current incidence projections, 3.2 million new cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed each year by 2050 ( Hortobagyi et al . 2005 ). Meanwhile, the heterogeneity observed at both the intra- and inter-tumour levels continues

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Koen D Flach and Wilbert Zwart

Introduction Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in women, with approximately 1.7 million annual new diagnoses ( Ferlay et al. 2015 ). Despite the improvement of breast cancer treatment, still over half a million women die of

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Sheree D Martin and Sean L McGee

disease cluster, numerous epidemiological studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes are at a greater risk of developing breast cancer ( Xue & Michels 2007 ). The incidence of type 2 diabetes has been steadily increasing for decades and

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O Sukocheva and C Wadham

this review, we analysed recent knowledge gained at the crossroads of sphingolipid and oestrogen signalling pathways in breast cancer cells (BCC). Sphingolipid signalling in a spotlight of anti-cancer research Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is the

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Sabashini K Ramchand, Yee-Ming Cheung, Belinda Yeo and Mathis Grossmann

Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide, contributing 25.4% of the total number of new cases diagnosed in 2018 ( www.wcrf.org ). Due to earlier detection and advances in treatment, the 5-year survival

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F E Utama, M J LeBaron, L M Neilson, A S Sultan, A F Parlow, K-U Wagner and H Rui

Introduction Growth and differentiation of breast cancer is regulated by hormones, notably estrogen, progesterone and prolactin. In rodents, prolactin is a well-documented tumor promoter of the mammary gland, as revealed by a variety

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Elisabeth Douglas Galsgaard, Birgitte Bruun Rasmussen, Charlotta Grånäs Folkesson, Louise Maymann Rasmussen, Martin Werner Berchtold, Leif Christensen and Svetlana Panina

in Ben-Jonathan et al . 2008 ). Extrapituitary synthesis of PRL was discovered in T-lymphocytes, placenta, breast cancer cells and surrounding normal breast epithelium ( Montgomery et al . 1990 , Kenner et al . 1991 , Gellersten et al . 1994

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Jorge Diaz, Evelyn Aranda, Soledad Henriquez, Marisol Quezada, Estefanía Espinoza, Maria Loreto Bravo, Bárbara Oliva, Soledad Lange, Manuel Villalon, Marius Jones, Jan J Brosens, Sumie Kato, Mauricio A Cuello, Todd P Knutson, Carol A Lange, Lisette Leyton and Gareth I Owen

has been speculated that progestins hijack these signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Progesterone and progestins have been previously reported to stimulate breast cancer cell migration and invasion ( Carvajal et al . 2005 , Kato et al . 2005

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Candida N Perera, Hwei G Chin, Nadire Duru and Ignacio G Camarillo

Introduction Obesity is a major health problem and is positively associated with breast cancer incidence and mortality ( Barnett 2003 , Calle & Kaaks 2004 , Garofalo & Surmacz 2006 , Lorincz & Sukumar 2006 ). The molecular mechanisms involved in

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Sanda Raulic, Yudith Ramos-Valdes and Gabriel E DiMattia

al . 2006 , 2007 ) or elevated upon oestrogen (E 2 ) treatment of human breast cancer cell lines ( Charpentier et al . 2000 , Bouras et al . 2002 ). However, whether STC2 is responsive to other hormones that can regulate growth and what effect it