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Peter Smith, Dagmar Wilhelm and Raymond J Rodgers

, how prenatal and perinatal factors can lead to impaired post-natal fertility, our understanding of ovarian development assumes increasing importance. This review aims to provide a summary of the current knowledge of ovarian development, bringing

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Juan Bernal

Introduction The actions of thyroid hormones (TH) on brain develop­ment and function are among the more relevant of these hormones, strongly influencing neuromotor performance, cognition and mood. Multiple conditions cause impaired TH action

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Hiroto Kobayashi, Saori Yoshida, Ying-Jie Sun, Nobuyuki Shirasawa and Akira Naito

development ( Ramirez & Sawyer 1965 , Smith & Davidson 1968 , Baker & Kragt 1969 , Döhler & Wuttke 1975 , Andrews et al . 1981 , Döcke et al . 1984 ). The enhanced expression of estrogenic effects during postnatal maturation processes could be due to a

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William Zawatski and Mary M Lee

pubic hair and testicular development in males, whereas others dispute such temporal shifts ( Euling et al . 2008 a ). An important contributor to the secular trend in female pubertal timing is the significant improvement in overall public health over

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Stijn L J Van Herck, Stijn Geysens, Edward Bald, Grazyna Chwatko, Evelyne Delezie, Elham Dianati, R G Ahmed and Veerle M Darras

failure ( Luewan et al . 2011 ). Maternal hyperthyroidism can be treated with anti-thyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI). However, these drugs may in turn have a negative impact on foetal development as they can cross the

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Dong-Xu Han, Chang-Jiang Wang, Xu-Lei Sun, Jian-Bo Liu, Hao Jiang, Yan Gao, Cheng-Zhen Chen, Bao Yuan and Jia-Bao Zhang

circRNAs in bovine cumulus cells ( Fu et al. 2018 ). As an important class of experimental animals, rats play a crucial role in many types of functional studies, particularly in reproductive development ( Han et al. 2017 a ). The pituitary is an

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Ebrahim Asadi, Atefeh Najafi, Ashraf Moeini, Reihaneh Pirjani, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Saideh Mikaeili, Ensieh Salehi, Emmanuel Adutwum, Mansoureh Soleimani, Fariba Khosravi, Mahmood Barati and Farid Abolhassani

). One major problem usually encountered in frozen-thawed ovarian cortical grafts is the risk of re-seeding malignancies ( Abir et al . 2010 b ). These limitations could be overcome by the in vitro development of the isolated primordial follicles into

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Ian S McLennan and Michael W Pankhurst

et al . 1994 , Josso et al . 2012 ), although AMH is required for the normal cellular and biochemical development of the mammalian testis ( Mishina et al . 1996 , Wu et al . 2005 ). The study of AMH in lower vertebrates has centred on its role in

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Johan G Eriksson

the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Further development and deeper understanding around the importance of programming of health and disease has led to the development of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. However

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Stephen G Hillier

. 2016 ). All arthropod species moult ( Chang & Mykles 2011 ). It is a defining feature of animals with a rigid exoskeleton, which is split and shed to accommodate serial phases of growth and development ( Nijhout & Callier 2015 ) ( Box 2 ). The process