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Ricardo J Samms, Michelle Murphy, Maxine J Fowler, Scott Cooper, Paul Emmerson, Tamer Coskun, Andrew C Adams, Alexei Kharitonenkov, Francis J P Ebling and Kostas Tsintzas

regulation of energy metabolism and insulin action. Disruption of normal hepatic metabolism is associated with excess accumulation of tissue lipid content and is linked to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome ( Birkenfeld & Shulman 2014 ). Therefore

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Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Adam J Branscum, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

energy metabolism in ob/ob mice are shown in Fig. 1 . Leptin was consistently detected in serum of ob/ob mice when infused at 40 ng/h, achieved values similar to WT mice at 140 ng/h and was elevated compared to WT mice at 400 ng/h ( Fig. 1A

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Cho-Rong Bae, Kazuya Hasegawa, Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Yurie Kawasaki, Kazuyo Senba, Youn-Soo Cha and Yukari Date

findings imply a close relationship between eating habits, food texture, and obesity or obesity-related diseases. Dietary factors such as food texture are thought to affect feeding behavior and energy metabolism. Oka et al . (2003) demonstrated that rats

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Jimena Laporta, Spencer A E Moore, Samantha R Weaver, Callyssa M Cronick, Megan Olsen, Austin P Prichard, Brian P Schnell, Thomas D Crenshaw, Francisco Peñagaricano, Rupert M Bruckmaier and Laura L Hernandez

, and there is limited information in dairy cows. We hypothesized that increasing systemic serotonin concentrations in lactating dairy cows would improve Ca and energy metabolism. In the present study, we therefore performed a 5-HTP dosing experiment to

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Cathy A Guo and Shaodong Guo

hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stresses and inflammation ( Battiprolu et al . 2010 ). These factors can cause energy metabolism alteration, calcium mishandling, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis and myocardial

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Hannah M Eggink, Lauren L Tambyrajah, Rosa van den Berg, Isabel M Mol, Jose K van den Heuvel, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Johannes A Romijn, Patrick C N Rensen, Sander Kooijman and Maarten R Soeters

-described effects of BAs in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, we hypothesized that central effects of BA contribute to the regulation of energy metabolism. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of central bile acid signaling on

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EVA BRUMMEL, I. D. K. HALKERSTON and M. REISS

SUMMARY

The action of different steroid hormones on the oxygen consumption of adrenal cortex slices in vitro was investigated.

Deoxycorticosterone (DOC), testosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone, and 17-hydroxycorticosterone, were found to stimulate the oxygen uptake rate, while cortisone, progesterone, pregnenolone, androsterone and cholesterol were inactive.

Pretreatment of the slices with DOC, testosterone or ACTH inhibited the action of ACTH or DOC added subsequently.

The significance of the direct action of different steroid hormones on the energy metabolism of the adrenal cortex is discussed.

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Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Luiz Felipe Barella, Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Ananda Malta, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa and Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias

rats, which suggests complex cross-talk between these hormones. These hormones affect body mass and energy metabolism and imprint an altered regulatory pattern as a long-term consequence. As previously reported, hypoglycemia induces afferent signals

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JOYCE D. BAIRD

CONTENTS

Introduction

Effect on the foetus of diabetic diathesis in the mother

Size

Energy metabolism and hormonal status

Normal newborn infant

Infant of diabetic mother:

Blood glucose and free fatty acids

Hyperinsulinism

Hyperglycaemia

Growth hormone

Synalbumin antagonist

Adrenal cortex

Adrenal medulla

High perinatal mortality

Congenital abnormalities

Later incidence of clinical diabetes

The diabetogenic effect of pregnancy on the mother

Changes in glucose tolerance in normal pregnancy; criteria of normality; diagnosis of prediabetes

Plasma insulin in normal pregnancy

Glucose tolerance and plasma insulin in gestational diabetes

Parity and the development of diabetes

INTRODUCTION

The subject of pregnancy and diabetes can be considered from two main points of view: that of the baby and that of the mother.

There is no doubt that the children born to diabetic mothers (both before and after the development of clinical diabetes) commonly exceed the mean body weight for their gestational age, have a characteristic appearance,

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Alia H Sukkar, Aaron M Lett, Gary Frost and Edward S Chambers

. 2018 ). In addition, other rodent studies have examined the impact of SCFAs administration on energy metabolism following intraperitoneal infusion. In the acute term, Kimura et al . has shown that propionate can increase oxygen consumption in