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Taylor Landry East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Human Performance Laboratory, College of Human Performance and Health, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

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Daniel Shookster East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Human Performance Laboratory, College of Human Performance and Health, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

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Alec Chaves East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Human Performance Laboratory, College of Human Performance and Health, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

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Katrina Free East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Human Performance Laboratory, College of Human Performance and Health, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

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Tony Nguyen East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Human Performance Laboratory, College of Human Performance and Health, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

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Hu Huang East Carolina Diabetes and Obesity Institute, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Human Performance Laboratory, College of Human Performance and Health, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Department of Physiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

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. 1996 , Ebrahimi et al. 2013 , Hagobian et al. 2013 ), possibly due to menstrual cycle-dependent fluctuations in metabolic hormones in females. Specifically, plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and insulin concentrations are lower and peptide YY

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Yuriko Kitajima Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan

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Yusuke Ono Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan

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caused by a variety of factors such as menopause, surgical ovariectomy, and chemotherapy. In females, insufficient energy intake leads to body weight loss that also causes hypoestrogenic menstrual abnormalities. The female athlete triad, low energy

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Caroline C Faria Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Leonardo Matta Pereira Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Luiz Gabriel Portilho Moreira Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Kathelinie Celestino Faustino Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Milena Simões Peixoto Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Ariclécio Cunha de Oliveira Instituto Superior de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Ceará, Brazil

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Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
NUMPEX, Campus Duque de Caxias, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Denise Pires Carvalho Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Rodrigo Soares Fortunato Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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damage response in both male and female rats undergoing methimazole treatment for 7 or 21 days. Our prior findings revealed a sexual dimorphism in thyroid redox homeostasis, highlighting that females exhibit a more pro-oxidative environment compared to

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Saniya Rattan Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

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Changqing Zhou Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

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Catheryne Chiang Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

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Sharada Mahalingam Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

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Emily Brehm Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

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Jodi A Flaws Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA

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metabolism of hormones ( Sweeney 2002 , Sanderson 2006 ). EDCs have been shown to disrupt female fertility in a wide range of species including humans ( Figs 1 and 2 ) ( Woodruff & Walker 2008 , Patel et al . 2015 ). Multiple recent reviews have

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María Cecilia Ramirez Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental-CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina

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Guillermina María Luque Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental-CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina

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Ana María Ornstein Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental-CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina

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Damasia Becu-Villalobos Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental-CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Vuelta de Obligado 2490, Buenos Aires 1428, Argentina

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Introduction Abnormal exposure to steroid hormones within a critical developmental period elicits various permanent alterations in female reproductive physiology in rodents ( Dorner 1981 ). The effects of neonatal androgens, estrogens, and endocrine

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C M Gomes
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C Raineki
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P Ramos de Paula
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G S Severino
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C V V Helena
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J A Anselmo-Franci
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C R Franci
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G L Sanvitto
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A B Lucion
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. 2004 ). Besides the decreased behavioral inhibition in novel and averse environments, previous study showed that daily handling of the offspring during the first 10 days of life reduced the sexual behavior of male and female rats ( Padoin et al

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Adam C Guzzo Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1

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Tyler Pollock Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1

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Denys deCatanzaro Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1

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Introduction Conspecifics' excretions can impact mammalian females' reproductive state in many ways. Male excretions can accelerate female sexual development ( Vandenbergh 1967 , Harder & Jackson 2003 ), terminate pregnancies sired by other males

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Hiroyuki Enomoto Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Kinuyo Iwata Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Keisuke Matsumoto Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Mai Otsuka Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Akio Morita Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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Hitoshi Ozawa Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

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studies have investigated diabetic female rats. The number of kisspeptin-, NKB-, and Dyn-ir cells in the ARC remained unchanged in female rats with diabetes induced by both STZ and HFD ( Ziarniak et al. 2018 ). In another report, the number of Dyn

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Renato Simões Gaspar Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

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Renata Ohana Alves Benevides Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

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João Lucas de Lima Fontelles Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

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Caroline Castro Vale Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

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Lucas Martins França Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

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Paulo de Tarso Silva Barros Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

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Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

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). The association between MetS risk factors, especially obesity and insulin resistance, and ovarian dysfunction has been reported in female mice ( Wu et al . 2014 b ), rats ( Sanchez-Garrido et al . 2015 ), and mini pigs ( Newell-Fugate et al . 2014

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Xiaonan Yan State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Clinical Center of Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, China

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Xiaonan Dai State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Clinical Center of Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, China

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Jing Wang State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Clinical Center of Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, China

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Nannan Zhao State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Clinical Center of Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, China

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Yugui Cui State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Clinical Center of Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, China

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Jiayin Liu State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Clinical Center of Reproductive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, China

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) and the first-degree female relatives of women with PCOS are at a high risk of developing PCOS ( Kahsar-Miller et al . 2001 , Sir-Petermann et al . 2007 ), suggesting an interaction between genetic susceptibility and the influence of the maternal

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