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Kenichi Serizawa, Kenji Yogo, Yoshihito Tashiro, Satoshi Takeda, Ryohei Kawasaki, Ken Aizawa and Koichi Endo

. 2003 ), and flow-mediated dilation (FMD), which is a useful indicator of endothelial function in clinical settings, is identified as an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events ( Yeboah et al . 2007 ). FMD was identified as the arterial

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Sieneke Labruijere, E Leonie A F van Houten, René de Vries, Usha M Musterd-Bagghoe, Ingrid M Garrelds, Piet Kramer, A H Jan Danser, Carlos M Villalón, Jenny A Visser and Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink

is often assessed by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and intima media thickness of the carotid artery (CIMT). A decreased FMD and an increased CIMT have been observed in women with PCOS compared with normo-ovulatory woman

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V L Clifton, R Crompton, M A Read, P G Gibson, R Smith and I M R Wright

-dependent flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery by sex and menstrual cycle. Circulation 92 3431 –3435. Hu J , Norman M, Wallensteen M & Gennser G 1998 Increased large arterial stiffness and impaired acetylcholine

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Rhonda D Prisby

, brachial flow-mediated dilation (i.e., a measure of NO-related endothelial cell function) was diminished in vitamin D-deficient, type 2 diabetic patients ( Yiu et al. 2011 ). However, supplementation with vitamin D to improve endothelial cell function has

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Eloise A Bradley, Dino Premilovac, Andrew C Betik, Donghua Hu, Emily Attrill, Stephen M Richards, Stephen Rattigan and Michelle A Keske

its widespread clinical use. Previous work has shown that metformin improves brachial artery endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation) in people with type 1 diabetes ( Pitocco et al. 2013 ) and polycystic ovarian syndrome ( Jensterle et al

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Mahendra Prasad Bhatt, Yeon-Ju Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Yong Ho Kim, Jong Yun Hwang, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim and Kwon-Soo Ha

Chantemele E Feher A Romero MJ Bagi Z 2013 Peroxynitrite disrupts endothelial caveolae leading to enos uncoupling and diminished flow-mediated dilation in coronary arterioles of diabetic patients. Diabetes 63 1381 – 1393 . ( doi:10

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John N Stabley, Rhonda D Prisby, Bradley J Behnke and Michael D Delp

Salah W Elhendy A 2012 Relations among glycemic control, circulating endothelial cells, nitric oxide, and flow mediated dilation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus . Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 120 460 – 465

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Abdoulaye Diane, Maria Kupreeva, Faye Borthwick, Spencer D Proctor, W David Pierce and Donna F Vine

ovarian syndrome enhances flow-mediated dilation in the absence of changes in fatness . Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 45 2234 – 2242 . ( doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31829ba9a1 ) Takaya K Ogawa Y Hiraoka J Hosoda K Yamori Y Nakao K

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Charlotte Lawson, Jose M Vicencio, Derek M Yellon and Sean M Davidson

MVs correlate with impaired endothelium function, as determined by the measurement of flow mediated dilatation in the brachial artery ( Feng et al . 2010 ). In addition to their levels increasing with endothelial dysfunction, MVs may also have a

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Jennifer J DuPont and Iris Z Jaffe

brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a clinical marker of endothelial function, in hypertensive humans ( Fujimura et al. 2012 ). Further, eplerenone treatment reduced BP and pulse pressure as well as vascular stiffness in rats that were treated