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Dieuwertje C E Spaanderman, Mark Nixon, Jacobus C Buurstede, Hetty H C M Sips, Maaike Schilperoort, Eline N Kuipers, Emma A Backer, Sander Kooijman, Patrick C N Rensen, Natalie Z M Homer, Brian R Walker, Onno C Meijer and Jan Kroon

). Glucocorticoid action in metabolism is predominantly mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) which are expressed in virtually all tissues in both humans and rodents. It is known that glucocorticoid transcriptional activity is subject to multiple levels of

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Rachel V Richardson, Emma J Batchen, Adrian J W Thomson, Rowan Darroch, Xinlu Pan, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Wiktoria Wyrzykowska, Kathleen Scullion, Emad A S Al-Dujaili, Mary E Diaz, Carmel M Moran, Christopher J Kenyon, Gillian A Gray and Karen E Chapman

actions through the closely related glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Cardiomyocytes lack the glucocorticoid-inactivating enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ( Chapman et al . 2013 ). Thus, the effects of

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Kerryn M Taylor, David W Ray and Paula Sommer

receptor Glucocorticoids (Gcs) are a class of steroid hormones that function to maintain homeostasis. The effects of Gcs are mediated by the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptor (GR), an intracellular ligand-activated transcription factor and

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Ellen H Stolte, B M Lidy Verburg van Kemenade, Huub F J Savelkoul and Gert Flik

Introduction Glucocorticoids (GCs; cortisol and corticosterone) play a pivotal role in vertebrate physiology through a plethora of control mechanisms. The GC system, with a nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR), is found in all

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James S M Cuffe, Zarqa Saif, Anthony V Perkins, Karen M Moritz and Vicki L Clifton

glucocorticoid signaling through intricate interactions with steroid receptors is vital for healthy development. While natural glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) can bind to both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to

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Helen Garside, Charlotte Waters, Andy Berry, Lisa Rice, Helen C Ardley, Anne White, Philip A Robinson and David Ray

Introduction The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. It is a key regulator of many homeostatic mechanisms and is also the target of therapeutic glucocorticoids used to treat inflammatory

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Alistair I Freeman, Helen L Munn, Val Lyons, Alexander Dammermann, Jonathan R Seckl and Karen E Chapman

Introduction Glucocorticoids exert effects on virtually all tissues, the majority of which are mediated by the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Despite near ubiquitous expression, GR levels vary widely both between and within

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E P S Conceição, E G Moura, A C Manhães, J C Carvalho, J L Nobre, E Oliveira and P C Lisboa

)); glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GR-α (sc-12763, Santa Cruz Biotechnology)); 11B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11B-HSD1 (sc-20175, Santa Cruz Biotechnology)) were evaluated by Western blotting in the VAT (epididymal fat sample); neuropeptide Y (NPY (N9525

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Sébastien Desarzens and Nourdine Faresse

tissues mass, particularly in the central region ( Wajchenberg et al . 1995 ). The absence of 11βHSD2 expression in adipocytes allows the glucocorticoids to mediate their effects through binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as well as the

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Huali Yu, Ye Guo, Yang Zhao, Feng Zhou, Kehan Zhao, Mayuqing Li, Junxiong Wen, Zixuan He, Xiaojuan Zhu and Xiaoxiao He

exert anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects and thus are used as therapeutic agents ( Coutinho & Chapman 2011 ). The major actions of GC are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is a transcriptional regulator that is ubiquitously