as intraperitoneal injection with regard to inducing an improvement in glucose tolerance and reduction in adipocyte size. These effects of oral GluOC were abolished by prior s.c. administration of exendin(9–39), an antagonistic peptide of the GLP-1
Akiko Mizokami, Satoru Mukai, Jing Gao, Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Takahito Otani, Hiroshi Takeuchi, Eijiro Jimi and Masato Hirata
Juliane K Czeczor, Amanda J Genders, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Timothy Connor, Liam G Hall, Kyoko Hasebe, Megan Ellis, Kirstie A De Jong, Darren C Henstridge, Peter J Meikle, Mark A Febbraio, Ken Walder and Sean L McGee
recapitulate aspects of the metabolic disturbances seen in obesity and type 2 diabetes. These include insulin resistance, glucose tolerance and dyslipidaemia ( Mody et al . 2011 , Jimenez-Palomares et al . 2012 , Shie et al . 2015 , Plucinska et al
M. Hoenig and D. C. Ferguson
Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed in eight adult cats before and after a 4-week treatment with thyroxine. The untreated cats had a mean fasting blood glucose concentration of 7·7 ± 0·3 mmol/l and a mean fasting insulin concentration of 88 ± 31 pmol/l which were not significantly different from mean fasting glucose and insulin concentrations after 4 weeks of thyroxine administration (6·9 ± 0·2 mmol/l and 101 ± 28 pmol/l respectively). At 120 min after glucose injection, the glucose concentration in untreated cats returned to baseline concentrations as did the insulin concentration. However, in the hyperthyroid cats both glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly (P < 0·001) higher (13·6 ± 0·8 mmol/l and 245 ± 17 pmol/l respectively) in comparison with the baseline and untreated cats. The t½ for glucose disappearance was significantly higher in the cats rendered hyperthyroid, and the glucose disposal rate constant (K) was significantly lower in this group. It is concluded that hyperthyroidism in cats leads to impairment of glucose tolerance possibly due to peripheral insulin resistance.
Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 121, 249–251
Anna G Holmes, Jose L Mesa, Bronwyn A Neill, Jason Chung, Andrew L Carey, Gregory R Steinberg, Bruce E Kemp, Robert J Southgate, Graeme I Lancaster, Clinton R Bruce, Matthew J Watt and Mark A Febbraio
administered either by miniosmotic pump (continuous IL-6) or via twice-daily injection (intermittent IL-6). Irrespective of the mode of delivery, herein we show that 14-d treatment with IL-6 improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Materials and
L Lundholm, G Bryzgalova, H Gao, N Portwood, S Fält, K D Berndt, A Dicker, D Galuska, J R Zierath, J-Å Gustafsson, S Efendic, K Dahlman-Wright and A Khan
impaired glucose tolerance) in mice ( Bailey & Ahmed-Sorour 1980 ). Furthermore, aromatase knockout (ARKO) mice, which possess a genetic impairment in endogenous estrogen synthesis, exhibit decreased glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased
S Wakabayashi, Y Kishimoto and A Matsuoka
A recently developed indigestible dextrin (IDex) was studied for its effects on glucose tolerance in male Sprague–Dawley rats. IDex is a low viscosity, water-soluble dietary fibre obtained by heating and enzyme treatment of potato starch. It has an average molecular weight of 1600.
An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted with 8-week-old rats to evaluate the effects of IDex on the increase in plasma glucose and insulin levels after a single administration of various sugars (1·5 g/kg body weight). The increase in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading was significantly reduced by IDex (0·15 g/kg body weight). This effect was not noted following glucose, high fructose syrup and lactose loading.
To evaluate the effects of continual IDex ingestion on glucose tolerance, 5-week-old rats were kept for 8 weeks on a stock diet, a high sucrose diet or an IDex-supplemented high sucrose diet. An oral glucose (1·5 g/kg body weight) tolerance test was conducted in week 8. Increases in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following glucose loading were higher in the rats given a high sucrose diet than in the rats fed a stock diet. However, when IDex was included in the high sucrose diet, the impairment of glucose tolerance was alleviated. Moreover, IDex feeding also significantly reduced accumulation of body fat, regardless of changes in body weight.
These findings suggest that IDex not only improves glucose tolerance following sucrose, maltose and maltodextrin loading but also stops progressive decrease in glucose tolerance by preventing a high sucrose diet from causing obesity.
Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 144, 533–538
Saeed Alshahrani and Mauricio Di Fulvio
glucose, enhanced glucose tolerance and β-cell secretory capacity. Further, we discover the presence of a BTD-sensitive mechanism involved in insulin secretion in β-cells lacking NKCC1, thus unmasking a potential new role for NKCC2 in β-cell physiology
Malin Fex, Nils Wierup, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Michael Ristow and Hindrik Mulder
was measured by RIA (Linco Research, St Charles, Missouri, USA). Intravenous glucose tolerance test For thei.v. glucosetolerancetest(IVGTT), d -glucose(1 g/kg)was injected intothetail veinoftenanesthetizedmiceof
I. M. D. JACKSON, C. R. M. PRENTICE and MARGARET T. McKIDDIE
Although the clinical association of hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus is well known (Phair, Bondy & Abelson, 1965; Hecht & Gershberg, 1968) there have been few studies of glucose and insulin metabolism in hypothyroidism before and after treatment; this paper reports our findings in ten such subjects.
Ten patients (9 female, 1 male; aged 43–73 yr.) with obvious clinical hypothyroidism, due to primary thyroid failure confirmed by a combination of serum protein-bound iodine, radioactive iodine studies with thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation (as appropriate) and thyroid antibody studies, were investigated. None were known to be diabetic. An oral glucose tolerance test (50 g.) before and after treatment was performed, venous blood being removed for determination of blood sugar and plasma insulin levels at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. The sugar was measured as total reducing substances in a Technicon auto-analyser and plasma insulin by the double antibody radioimmunoassay method of Hales
Greg M Kowalski, Michael J Kraakman, Shaun A Mason, Andrew J Murphy and Clinton R Bruce
. 2006 , Ahren et al . 2010 , Agardh & Ahren 2012 ), and interestingly not all these studies assessed glucose tolerance ( Winzell & Ahren 2004 , Ahren et al . 2010 ). With this in mind, we aimed to examine the effects of consuming a long-term (i