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Zengmin Wang, Gail J Mick, Rongrong Xie, Xudong Wang, Xuemei Xie, Guimei Li, and Kenneth L McCormick

Introduction Circulating adrenal-derived cortisol, which generated intracellularly from cortisone in various tissues, contributes to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. Only the active 11-hydroxy derivatives (cortisol and corticosterone), and

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Binbin Guan, Wenyi Li, Fengying Li, Yun Xie, Qicheng Ni, Yanyun Gu, Xiaoying Li, Qidi Wang, Hongli Zhang, and Guang Ning

is crucial for the development of specific drug treatments for type 2 diabetes. Several mitogens have been implicated in β-cell proliferation, including glucose, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), placental lactogens (PL), prolactin (PRL

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Kunihisa Hamano, Yuko Nakagawa, Yoshiaki Ohtsu, Longfei Li, Johan Medina, Yuji Tanaka, Katsuyoshi Masuda, Mitsuhisa Komatsu, and Itaru Kojima

Introduction Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells and modulates the effects of incretins and acetylcholine ( Ashcroft & Rorsman 1989 , Rasmussen et al . 1990 , Rorsman 1997 , Newsholme et al . 2014 ). We

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Stephan Pinheiro Frankenfeld, Leonardo Pires de Oliveira, Daniele Leão Ignacio, Raquel Guimarães Coelho, Mariana Nigro Mattos, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires Carvalho, and Rodrigo Soares Fortunato

glucose metabolism, the effects of supraphysiological doses (SDs) of anabolic–androgenic steroids on glucose metabolism are scarce. It is well-known that women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, who have hyperandrogenism, might present hyperinsulinemia with

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Mercedes Lombarte, Brenda L Fina, Maela Lupo, Marília A Buzalaf, and Alfredo Rigalli

world ( Trivedi et al . 1993 ) where fluoride content in drinking water is higher than that recommended by the WHO. Conversely, physical activity improves the effect of insulin on target tissues. Physical activity increases glucose uptake by muscle

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Manami Oya, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Kazuki Harada, Rika Numano, Takahiro Sato, Masayasu Kojima, and Takashi Tsuboi

arise from nutrient sensing and absorption in the intestine. In fact, in support of this view, recent studies have shown that nutrients (i.e., fatty acids and glucose) and hormones (i.e., insulin and oxytocin) regulate ghrelin secretion in fluorescence

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Victoria Diedrich, Elena Haugg, Carola Dreier, and Annika Herwig

proximate signal that decides whether an animal enters torpor on a particular day remains unknown. In the following, we summarize the current state of knowledge about two potential regulatory factors, namely thyroid hormones and glucose, in photoperiodic

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Tanja Jene, Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Annika Hasch, Jennifer Klüpfel, Julia Deuster, Mirjam Maas, Cora H Nijboer, Beat Lutz, Marianne B Müller, and Michael A van der Kooij

several maladaptive consequences, including the development of the metabolic syndrome ( Russell & Lightman 2019 ). Major risk factors for the metabolic syndrome include obesity and elevated blood glucose levels ( Sherling et al. 2017 ). In agreement

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Jimena Laporta, Spencer A E Moore, Samantha R Weaver, Callyssa M Cronick, Megan Olsen, Austin P Prichard, Brian P Schnell, Thomas D Crenshaw, Francisco Peñagaricano, Rupert M Bruckmaier, and Laura L Hernandez

in the regulation of energy balance ( Tecott 2007 ), mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The liver expresses TPH1 and several serotonin receptor subtypes ( Papadimas et al . 2012 ). Serotonin is thought to mediate hepatic

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Anna H Kongsted, Sanne V Husted, Malin P Thygesen, Vibeke G Christensen, Dominique Blache, Anders Tolver, Torben Larsen, Bjørn Quistorff, and Mette O Nielsen

whose in utero environment and early postnatal environments are mismatched and thus are at a risk of adverse health outcomes later in life. The conventional tests to study glucose–insulin axis function are not adequate in this respect, as the negative