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Hsiu-Chi Lee and Shaw-Jenq Tsai

Introduction Oxygen is an important substrate/co-factor for energy production and many cellular biochemical reactions. Low oxygen condition (hypoxia) is considered a physiological and also a pathological situation, which involves in many

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Chiung-Zuan Chiu, Bao-Wei Wang and Kou-Gi Shyu

failure (Ng et al . 2002), ischemia ( Pakala 2008 ), chronic hypoxia ( MacLean et al . 2000 ), or post-myocardial infarct rat myocardium ( Tzanidis et al . 2003 ). Upregulation of UII-R may worsen cardiac hypertrophy ( Segain et al . 2007 ) and cardiac

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Yingxin Xian, Zonglan Chen, Hongrong Deng, Mengyin Cai, Hua Liang, Wen Xu, Jianping Weng and Fen Xu

that increased expressions of inflammatory genes could be caused by hypoxia ( Ye et al. 2007 ), and macrophages were found to predominantly accumulate in hypoxic areas in adipose tissue of obese mice ( Rausch et al. 2008 ). These findings indicate

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Matthew J VandeKopple, Jinghai Wu, Lisa A Baer, Naresh C Bal, Santosh K Maurya, Anuradha Kalyanasundaram, Muthu Periasamy, Kristin I Stanford, Amato J Giaccia, Nicholas C Denko and Ioanna Papandreou

, resulting in heat production and protection from diet-induced obesity ( Smith et al. 2002 , Bal et al. 2012 , Maurya et al. 2015 ). Hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet associated protein (HILPDA) was originally identified as a hypoxia-inducible gene

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Bohan Wang, I Stuart Wood and Paul Trayhurn

, Trayhurn & Beattie 2001 ). Leptin is a hypoxia-sensitive gene; its expression being stimulated in adipocytes by low O 2 tension ( Grosfeld et al . 2002 b , Lolmède et al . 2003 , Polotsky et al . 2003 , Hausman & Richardson 2004 ), through

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Stina Häggström Rudolfsson and Anders Bergh

. 2005 ), and tissue hypoxia ( Shabsigh et al . 2001 ). Insufficient blood flow and tissue hypoxia could actually trigger the subsequent death of epithelial cells ( Lekås et al . 1997 , 1999 , Buttyan et al . 2000 ). Similarly, testosterone

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Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, Renata dos Santos Silva, Vanessa Uemura da Fonseca, Rafael Magdanelo Leandro, Thiago Senna Di Vincenzo, Ana Bárbara Alves-Wagner, Ubiratan Fabres Machado and Paula de Carvalho Papa

rapidly regulated by insulin ( Uldry & Thorens 2004 ). In CL of dogs, our group has demonstrated a differential expression of glucose transporter 1 ( SLC2A1 /GLUT1), which accompanied hypoxia during the cycle ( Papa et al . 2014 ), pointing out that the

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Ching-Wen Chang, Anna K Wakeland and Mana M Parast

important process for establishing the maternal–placental blood circulation, and therefore rapidly increasing the oxygen levels in support of fetal growth. Nevertheless, the placenta grows significantly during this period of relative hypoxia

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Eric D Bruder, Lauren Jacobson and Hershel Raff

stress and disease ( Zayour et al. 2003 ). Neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia leads to hypoxia, and can occur in up to 23% preterm human births in the USA ( American Academy of Pediatrics & Canadian Paediatric Society 2002 ). Glucocorticoid

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Hongyu Su, Xueyi Chen, Yueming Zhang, Linglu Qi, Yun He, Juanxiu Lv, Yingying Zhang, Xiang Li, Jiaqi Tang and Zhice Xu

Introduction Neonatal encephalopathy affects approximately 3 in 1000 births, inducing perinatal brain injury ( Hagberg et al. 2016 ). It is well known that perinatal brain injury is commonly due to hypoxia-ischemia during pregnancy and