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Milos Mraz and Martin Haluzik

-grade inflammation characterized by increased infiltration of immune cells into AT and increased production and subsequent secretion of proinflammatory factors into circulation ( Neels & Olefsky 2006 ). This review has focused on the various subsets of immune cells

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Anne H van der Spek, Eric Fliers and Anita Boelen

the immune response ( Boutzios & Kaltsas 2000 , Klein 2006 , De Vito et al . 2011 ), and there is an extensive body of literature available on the effects of TH on various types of innate immune cells ( De Vito et al . 2011 ). However, very few of

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Siobhan M Donnelly, Bao Tran Nguyen, Scott Rhyne, Jordan Estes, Subrina Jesmin and Chishimba Nathan Mowa

epithelial cells and the whole uterine cervical tissue in general, notably the effect of VEGF on the recruitment of immune cells to the uterine cervical epithelia and lumen. Materials and methods Animals Pregnant and nonpregnant (ovariectomized) C57BL6

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Chun Zeng, Xin Yi, Danny Zipris, Hongli Liu, Lin Zhang, Qiaoyun Zheng, Krishnamurthy Malathi, Ge Jin and Aimin Zhou

autoimmune responses ( Anderson & Bluestone 2005 ). NOD mice are an ideal model of spontaneous type 1 diabetes, a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Results from histological studies have indicated that infiltration of immune cells, including macrophages and

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A D Dobrian, M A Hatcher, J J Brotman, E V Galkina, P Taghavie-Moghadam, H Pei, B A Haynes and J L Nadler

immune cell trafficking in visceral AT and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by adipocytes ( Dobrian et al . 2013 ). Collectively, these results suggest that activation of STAT4 may participate in vascular inflammatory responses in part via

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Rui Song, Xiang-Qun Hu and Lubo Zhang

. 2017 ). As mentioned in ‘Glucocorticoids in heart development and function’ section, supporting cells such as endothelial cells, immune cells and fibroblasts in the cardiac microenvironment are crucial for cardiac development, autoregulation and

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Alison E Wallace, Douglas A Gibson, Philippa T K Saunders and Henry N Jabbour

vessel permeability, the differentiation (decidualisation) of stromal tissue, which resembles the granulation tissue of wound healing, and the infiltration of immune cells ( Finn 1986 ). Subsequent evidence has strengthened this analogy by examining in

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Mark A Exley, Laura Hand, Donal O'Shea and Lydia Lynch

adipocytes ( Halberg et al . 2009 ), and Toll-like receptor activation through free fatty acid sensing ( Shi et al . 2006 ) are involved. Each immune cell population present in WAT has been shown to participate in the progression of obesity

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Joan Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marion Peyrou, Marta Giralt and Francesc Villarroya

others restrict the use of the term to proteins released by the brown adipocyte ‘cell type’. This is a biologically relevant distinction, considering the presence of non-brown adipocyte cells in the BAT (e.g. macrophages and other immune cells, vascular

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D S Boeldt and I M Bird

cells and their byproducts are known to interact with invading trophoblasts and endothelial cells, and in most instances, this is a positive effect. In early pregnancy, immune cells play an important role in the implantation and establishment of the