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Rubén Marín-Juez, Susanne Jong-Raadsen, Shuxin Yang and Herman P Spaink

article). We cannot exclude the possibility that the ptpn6 abrogation may prevent insulin resistance and immune suppression due to a basal overexpression of some genes (e.g. lepb and cxcl-clc ). Future in-depth studies would be needed to address this

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Shiying Shao, Yun Gao, Bing Xie, Fei Xie, Sai Kiang Lim and GuoDong Li

Shortage of cadaveric pancreata and requirement of immune suppression are two major obstacles in transplantation therapy of type 1 diabetes. Here, we investigate whether i.p. transplantation of alginate-encapsulated insulin-producing cells from the embryo-derived mouse embryo progenitor-derived insulin-producing-1 (MEPI-1) line could lower hyperglycemia in immune-competent, allogeneic diabetic mice. Within days after transplantation, hyperglycemia was reversed followed by about 2.5 months of normo- to moderate hypoglycemia before relapsing. Mice transplanted with unencapsulated MEPI cells relapsed within 2 weeks. Removal of the transplanted capsules by washing of the peritoneal cavity caused an immediate relapse of hyperglycemia that could be reversed with a second transplantation. The removed capsules had fibrotic overgrowth but remained permeable to 70 kDa dextrans and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Following transplantation, the number of cells in capsules increased initially, before decreasing to below the starting cell number at 75 days. Histological examination showed that beyond day 40 post-transplantation, encapsulated cell clusters exhibited proliferating cells with a necrotic core. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and oral glucose tolerance test in the transplanted animals correlated directly with the number of viable cells remaining in the capsules. Our study demonstrated that encapsulation could effectively protect MEPI cells from the host immune system without compromising their ability to correct hyperglycemia in immune-competent diabetic mice for 2.5 months, thereby providing proof that immunoisolation of expansible but immune-incompatible stem cell-derived surrogate β-cells by encapsulation is a viable diabetes therapy.

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Ikuko Ueki, Norio Abiru, Kentaro Kawagoe and Yuji Nagayama

Rapoport B 2004b Schistosoma mansoni and alpha-galactosylceramide: prophylactic effect of Th1 immune suppression in a mouse model of Graves' hyperthyroidism . Journal of Immunology 173 2167 – 2173 . Pennline KJ Roque-Gaffney E Monahan M

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Saadia Basharat, Jennifer A Parker, Kevin G Murphy, Stephen R Bloom, Julia C Buckingham and Christopher D John

for sepsis induced immune suppression . Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets 10 336 – 347 . ( doi:10.2174/1871530311006040336 ) Vachharajani V 2008 Influence of obesity on sepsis . Pathophysiology 15 123 – 134 . ( doi:10

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Zhenguang Zhang, Agnes E Coutinho, Tak Yung Man, Tiina M J Kipari, Patrick W F Hadoke, Donald M Salter, Jonathan R Seckl and Karen E Chapman

Habenicht AJ 2007 Macrophages and neutrophils are the targets for immune suppression by glucocorticoids in contact allergy. Journal of Clinical Investigation 117 1381 – 1390 . ( doi:10.1172/JCI28034 ) 10.1172/JCI28034 Uderhardt S Herrmann

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Vitaly Ablamunits, Simon Klebanov, Sharon Y Giese and Kevan C Herold

, and conventional immune suppression may outweigh the benefits of this approach. To study the mechanisms involved in rejection of allogeneic HuWAT, we created a humanized mouse that carried HuWAT grafts. Our data demonstrate that all mice transplanted

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Chun Zeng, Xin Yi, Danny Zipris, Hongli Liu, Lin Zhang, Qiaoyun Zheng, Krishnamurthy Malathi, Ge Jin and Aimin Zhou

peripheral mechanism of immune suppression of self-reactive T cells and a master switch factor controlling the balance between tolerance and immunity ( Johnson et al . 2013 ). It has been demonstrated that CD4 + CD25 + Tregs, in particular CD4 + CD25 + FoxP

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Hsiu-Chi Lee and Shaw-Jenq Tsai

, angiogenesis and immune suppression ( Wu et al . 2010 for review). Abnormal production of PGE 2 is caused by overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in endometriotic stromal cells and peritoneal macrophages in women with endometriosis ( Wu et al . 2002

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Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Susanne Jong-Raadsen, Jeroen Bakkers, Herman P Spaink and Rubén Marín-Juez

insulin resistance and immune suppression via Ptpn6/Shp1 in zebrafish . Journal of Endocrinology 222 229 – 241 . ( doi:10.1530/JOE-14-0178 ) Mootha VK Lindgren CM Eriksson KF Subramanian A Sihag S Lehar J Puigserver P Carlsson E

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Mark Nixon, Rita Upreti and Ruth Andrew

immunoassay. (D) 5αTHB caused immune suppression to a similar extent to corticosterone, assessed by a significant reduction ( P <0.01) in the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.01–100 ng/ml)) to induce release of interleukin 6 (IL6) following incubation (24