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Tsun-Jui Liu, Hui-Chin Lai, Chih-Tai Ting and Ping H Wang

and insulin receptor mediate important biological actions in cardiac muscle, such as carbohydrate metabolism, myocyte size, anti-apoptosis signaling, myocytes differentiation, and myogenesis ( Abel 2004 , Dorn & Force 2005 , Saetrum & Wang 2005

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Ernane Torres Uchoa, Paula Beatriz Marangon, Rodrigo Rorato, Silvia Graciela Ruginsk, Lucas Kniess Debarba, Jose Antunes-Rodrigues and Lucila L K Elias

. 2008 , Uchoa et al. 2010 , Panchal et al. 2011 ). Plasma insulin access the brain by penetrating the blood–brain barrier through a receptor mediator and saturable transporter ( Baura et al. 1993 ). In the CNS, insulin receptors ( InsR s) are

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Cathy A Guo and Shaodong Guo

; TCA, tricarboxylic acid. Control of cardiac homeostasis by IRS-1 and IRS-2 The metabolic control by insulin is tightly coupled to the insulin signaling cascade ( Fig. 2 ). Over the past a few years, creation of insulin receptor

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Yan-Hong Bu, Yu-Ling He, Hou-De Zhou, Wei Liu, Dan Peng, Ai-Guo Tang, Ling-Li Tang, Hui Xie, Qiu-Xia Huang, Xiang-Hang Luo and Er-Yuan Liao

Introduction Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are essential for receptor tyrosine kinases, such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptors, as well as other cytokines affecting cellular function ( Burks & White 2001 ). Following

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J Ogino, K Sakurai, K Yoshiwara, Yoichi Suzuki, N Ishizuka, N Seki, Yoshifumi Suzuki, H Koseki, T Shirasawa, N Hashimoto, K Yagui and Y Saito

insulin resistance occurred ( Lingohr et al. 2002 a ). It has been clinically reported that mutation of the insulin receptor (IR) gene causes various forms of insulin resistance, such as overt diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or normal glucose

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Lin Xia, Zhongqiu Wang, Ying Zhang, Xiao Yang, Yibei Zhan, Rui Cheng, Shiming Wang and Jianfa Zhang

). Insulin is an essential regulator of intermediary metabolism, and insulin signaling involves a cascade of events initiated by the binding of insulin to insulin receptor (IR) followed by receptor autophosphorylation and activation of receptor tyrosine

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Sanhua Leng, Wenshuo Zhang, Yanbin Zheng, Ziva Liberman, Christopher J Rhodes, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman and Xiao Jian Sun

genetic and molecular studies ( Virkamaki et al . 1999 , Lee & White 2004 , Taniguchi et al . 2006 ). In comparison, the molecular basis of insulin resistance is considerably less clear. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are major docking

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Marina C Muñoz, Jorge F Giani, Marcos A Mayer, Jorge E Toblli, Daniel Turyn and Fernando P Dominici

Introduction The insulin receptor (IR) is a tetrameric protein composed of two extracellular α-subunits that bind insulin linked by disulfide bonds to two transmembrane β-subunits that have intracellular tyrosine kinase activity ( White & Kahn 1994

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Michael Udelhoven, Mareike Pasieka, Uschi Leeser, Wilhelm Krone and Markus Schubert

Introduction The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) protein family has at least four members, IRS1 to IRS4 ( Sun et al . 1991 , 1995 , Lavan et al . 1997 a , b ), mediating the intracellular effects of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1

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Darryl L Hadsell, Walter Olea, Nicole Lawrence, Jessy George, Daniel Torres, Takahashi Kadowaki and Adrian V Lee

insulin acts within cells and tissues has largely been defined in terms of effects mediated through the insulin receptor substrate proteins (IRS)-1 and -2 ( Thirone et al. 2006 ). The IRS proteins serve as docking proteins to facilitate the interaction