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Charlene Diepenbroek, Leslie Eggels, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Eric Fliers, Andries Kalsbeek, Mireille J Serlie, and Susanne E la Fleur

Introduction The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), associated with obesity, is taking epidemic proportions. The molecular drivers involved in the pathogenesis of lower insulin sensitivity in obesity include, but are not limited to

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Qinghua Wang, Jing Tang, Shujun Jiang, Zan Huang, Anying Song, Siyuan Hou, Xiang Gao, and Hai-Bin Ruan

the top and average levels shown at the bottom. Data presented as mean ±  s.e.m. * P  < 0.05, ** P  < 0.01 and *** P  < 0.001 by two-tailed t -test. Improved glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in MAGED1 KO mice Activation of

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Le Bu, Qian Yao, Zhimin Liu, Wei Tang, Junjie Zou, and Shen Qu

insulin sensitivity. First, high levels of galanin receptors are found in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of rats ( Li et al . 2004 ), i.e. the key sites involved in regulating glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity. Second, diabetic rats have an

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Holly M Johnson, Erin Stanfield, Grace J Campbell, Erica E Eberl, Gregory J Cooney, and Kim S Bell-Anderson

exert varying effects on insulin sensitivity measured under hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp conditions ( Storlien et al. 1987 ). Much research has been fat-focused and concentrated on the association of ectopic lipid with the development of insulin

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Fernando Escrivá, M Lucía Gavete, Yasmín Fermín, Coralia Pérez, Nilda Gallardo, Carmen Alvarez, Antonio Andrés, Manuel Ros, and José M Carrascosa

Introduction Ageing is associated with a moderate decrease in peripheral insulin sensitivity in humans ( De Fronzo 1981 , Fink et al. 1983 , Rowe et al. 1983 ) and rodents ( Goodman et al. 1983 , Narimiya et al. 1984

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Ellen R Lubbers, Edward O List, Adam Jara, Lucila Sackman-Sala, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Manuel D Gahete, Rhonda D Kineman, Ravneet Boparai, Andrzej Bartke, John J Kopchick, and Darlene E Berryman

, showing negative correlations with many age- and obesity-related diseases and a positive correlation with longevity and insulin sensitivity ( McKee Alderman et al . 2010 , Arai et al . 2011 ). Adiponectin has also been linked to healthy phenotypes in

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Insulin sensitivity was increased in rats treated for 21 days with mebanazine, 10mg./kg., phenelzine, 30mg./kg., or tranylcypromine, 10 mg./kg. but not in rats treated with isonicotinic acid hydrazide, 10 mg./kg., for 21 days or in animals treated with a single injection of mebanazine, 10 mg./kg. Pargyline, 14 mg./kg., given for 21 days produced 83% inhibition of hepatic monoamineoxidase and had a hypoglycaemic action when compared with 0·15 mg. mebanazine/kg., a dose just less than that required to inhibit monoamineoxidase. Increased insulin sensitivity seemed to be related to chronic inhibition of monoamineoxidase rather than to administration of hydrazine derivatives.

There was a tendency to anorexia during the drug treatment, but rats treated with monoamineoxidase inhibitors gained less weight than pair-fed control animals. This could be due to the previously reported reduction in growth hormone activity during treatment with monoamineoxidase inhibitors; nevertheless, any explanation for the increase in insulin sensitivity should be based upon the monoamineoxidase-inhibiting action of these drugs.

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Thomas Nicholson, Chris Church, Kostas Tsintzas, Robert Jones, Leigh Breen, Edward T Davis, David J Baker, and Simon W Jones

important contributors to tissue crosstalk and systemic inflammatory burden. The functional role of the adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, as mediators of metabolic health and insulin sensitivity are well described. However, at present the functional role

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Keld Fosgerau, Kirsten Raun, Cecilia Nilsson, Kirsten Dahl, and Birgitte S Wulff

improvement of insulin sensitivity. As the melanocortin receptors are involved in several different physiological responses, it is important to obtain agonists that are selective for the MC4-R in order to avoid possible side effects derived from activation of

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Paz Vital, Elena Larrieta, and Marcia Hiriart

explaining this difference ( Murphy et al. 2004 ). Different rodent models also show differences in insulin sensitivity and secretion between genders. For example, glucose-induced insulin secretion by isolated pancreatic islets from female Wistar