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Adam Gesing, Andrzej Bartke and Michal M Masternak

cardiovascular events ( Lincoff et al . 2007 ). The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of PIO on the insulin-signaling pathway (hepatic levels of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) – total and phosphorylated at a serine(307

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Young Hoon Son, Seok-Jin Lee, Ki-Baek Lee, Jin-Haeng Lee, Eui Man Jeong, Sun Gun Chung, Sang-Chul Park and In-Gyu Kim

hypertriglyceridemia ( Gazzerro et al . 2010 ). Moreover, we have demonstrated that the level of CAV1 in skeletal muscle is related to insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo ( Oh et al . 2008 ), indicating that CAV1 may regulate insulin signaling. Notably, Cav

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Bruno C Pereira, Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, José R Pauli, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas and Adelino S R da Silva

& Kahn 1994 , Cheatham & Kahn 1995 , Virkamaki et al . 1999 ). A growing body of evidence suggests that the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307 is directly linked to the molecular mechanism responsible of the impairment of insulin signaling pathway

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Sojin Lee and H Henry Dong

, kidney, muscle and adipose tissues, a broad tissue distribution that is characteristic of other FoxO isoforms in mammals ( Kim et al. 2011 ). Recent studies indicate that FoxO6 plays important roles in integrating insulin signaling to glucose and lipid

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A Tsuchiya, T Kanno and T Nishizaki

kinase 1 (Pak1; Mao et al . 2008 ), in a PI3K-independent manner. This study was conducted to gain further insight into PI3K-induced Akt activation in the insulin signal transduction pathway. To address this, we monitored GLUT4 mobilizations, measured

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María Florencia Heber, Silvana Rocío Ferreira, Giselle Adriana Abruzzese, Raíces Trinidad, Omar P Pignataro, Margarita Vega and Alicia B Motta

metabolic action ( Rincon et al. 1996 , Diamanti-Kandarakis & Dunaif 2012 ). It has been proposed that insulin resistance is caused by a post-binding defect in the insulin signaling pathway and/or related to mutations in the insulin receptor ( IR ) gene

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Joëlle Dupont, Sophie Tesseraud, Michel Derouet, Anne Collin, Nicole Rideau, Sabine Crochet, Estelle Godet, Estelle Cailleau-Audouin, Sonia Métayer-Coustard, Michel J Duclos, Christian Gespach, Tom E Porter, Larry A Cogburn and Jean Simon

pectoral muscle, a pure glycolytic-type muscle ( Duchêne et al . 2008 c ). To better understand the mechanisms of insulin action in chicken muscle, other components of insulin signaling have been recently characterized, namely the PKB/Akt, P70S6K1, and ERK

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Cynthia L Blanco, Alvaro G Moreira, Lisa L McGill-Vargas, Diana G Anzueto, Peter Nathanielsz and Nicolas Musi

exposure during pregnancy impacts placental growth factors and insulin signaling pathways during late gestation ( Ain et al . 2005 , Jellyman et al . 2012 ). In the fetal sheep, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) was increased in skeletal muscle when GCs were

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Markus Meier, Harald H Klein, Jan Kramer, Maren Drenckhan and Morten Schütt

, genes encoding proteins with effects on insulin signaling and/or insulin action are of special interest in order to understand the underlying molecular mechanism of the insulin resistance and to develop effective treatments. Recent studies have

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Parsanathan Rajesh and Karundevi Balasubramanian

of insulin receptors and glucose oxidation in cultured Chang liver cells and L6 myotubes ( Rengarajan et al . 2007 , Rajesh & Balasubramanian 2013 ). Furthermore, DEHP treatment of adult albino rats disrupts insulin signalling molecules, glucose