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Xiaofeng Wang and Catherine B Chan

the context of diabetes mellitus, n-3 PUFAs have anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing functions ( Kalupahana et al . 2011 ). However, the effect of n-3 PUFAs on insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is not well recognized. Defects in insulin

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Olivier Dumortier, Gaia Fabris, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Charlotte Hinault, Patricia Lebrun, Christophe Duranton, Michel Tauc, Stéphane Dalle, Julie Kerr-Conte, François Pattou, Marc Prentki and Emmanuel Van Obberghen

linked to insulin secretion has several exclusive features. First, glucose transport is not limiting for its metabolism, and it results in a rapid equilibrium between intracellular and extracellular glucose at all glycemic levels. The second particular

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Olivier Le Bacquer, Gurvan Queniat, Valery Gmyr, Julie Kerr-Conte, Bruno Lefebvre and François Pattou

specific deletion of TSC2 in β-cells induced β-cell apoptosis and reduced insulin secretion, after a first phase of β-cell mass expansion ( Shigeyama et al . 2008 ). In the rat, l -leucine, an amino acid known to induce mTORC1 activation, negatively

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Ida Alenkvist, Oleg Dyachok, Geng Tian, Jia Li, Saba Mehrabanfar, Yang Jin, Bryndis Birnir, Anders Tengholm and Michael Welsh

. 2004 ), promoting β-cell survival, and from glucose ( Rondas et al . 2011 , 2012 , Arous et al . 2013 ), stimulating insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo ( Cai et al . 2012 ). Absence of Shb has no effect on β-cell proliferation, but

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Astrid C Hauge-Evans, James Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Zoheb Hassan and Peter M Jones

all five receptors are expressed in the islets ( Ludvigsen et al . 2004 ). Results from studies using SSTR-deficient mice (SSTR1, SSTR2 or SSTR5) revealed changes in both basal and stimulated insulin secretion ( Strowski et al . 2000 , Wang et al

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Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Barbara C Fam, Anita Holdsworth, Sherley Visinoni, Zheng Ruan, Maria Stathopoulos, Anne W Thorburn, Christos N Joannides, Michael Cancilla, Lois Balmer, Joseph Proietto and Grant Morahan

when there is failure of the β-cell to secrete adequate amounts of insulin ( Kahn 2003 , Andrikopoulos 2010 ). Glucose is the predominant nutrient for insulin secretion, which enters the β-cell via the glucose transporter GLUT-2 and gets phosphorylated

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Elena Zambrano, Tonantzin Sosa-Larios, Lizbeth Calzada, Carlos A Ibáñez, Carmen A Mendoza-Rodríguez, Angélica Morales and Sumiko Morimoto

multiple genes encoding proteins involved in insulin signaling, insulin secretion and intermediary metabolism ( Stern 2000 , Kahn et al . 2006 ). Regardless, the detrimental impact of diet-induced MO on the long-term health, adiposity and metabolism of

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Rosiane A Miranda, Rosana Torrezan, Júlio C de Oliveira, Luiz F Barella, Claudinéia C da Silva Franco, Patrícia C Lisboa, Egberto G Moura and Paulo C F Mathias

, producing hyperinsulinemia during fasting and feeding states ( Shafrir 1996 ). Why is glucose-induced insulin secretion upregulated in obese human beings and experimental animal models? Several hypotheses have been proposed. One hypothesis is largely

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Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa, Egberto Gaspar de Moura, Luiz Felipe Barella, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Ananda Malta, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Tatiane Aparecida da Silva Ribeiro, Rosana Torrezan, Clarice Gravena and Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias

experimental procedure. Insulin secretion stimulation To adapt isolated islets to a baseline glucose concentration (5.6 mmol/l), they were preincubated for 60 min in 1 ml of normal Krebs–Ringer solution ((mmol/l): NaCl, 115; NaHCO 3 , 24; KCl, 1.6; MgCl6H 2 O

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Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Cruzat, Frank Arfuso and Kevin Keane

stream, they have an important clinical impact. Diminished glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and β-cell failure correlate with DM development ( Jensen et al . 2008 , Newsholme & Krause 2012 ), and consequently it is important to determine the