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Rachel A Davey, Michele V Clarke, Suzanne B Golub, Patricia K Russell, and Jeffrey D Zajac

, and in pregnancy and lactation, when foetal and newborn calcium requirements are high ( Cooper et al. 1967 , Kovacs 2005 ). Since bone is the major reservoir of calcium in the body, it contributes significantly to the maintenance of calcium

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A P Santos-Silva, E Oliveira, C R Pinheiro, A C Santana, C C Nascimento-Saba, Y Abreu-Villaça, E G Moura, and P C Lisboa

Introduction Approximately 20% of women in the world are smokers ( WHO 2010 ). This information awakens the interest about the effects of smoking on two important phases of woman's life: gestation and lactation. Some studies have associated smoking

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Shimpei Higo, Satoko Aikawa, Norio Iijima, and Hitoshi Ozawa

Introduction Lactation suppresses ovulation resulting in transient infertility in various mammals including humans ( McNeilly 2001 ). Lactation-induced infertility is characterized by a decrease in GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus, and a

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David R Grattan

pituitary secretions ( Harris 1948 ). Despite the clear evidence that neural stimuli (such as suckling) could stimulate prolactin secretion, however, Harris noted that cutting the pituitary stalk did not abolish lactation ( Dempsey & Uotila 1940 ), leading

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Patricia C Lisboa, Ellen P S Conceição, Elaine de Oliveira, and Egberto G Moura

as an association between physical and chemical stimuli in early life and future functional status ( de Moura et al . 2008 ). Overnutrition during lactation represents a risk factor for obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Animals raised in

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Anna Fodor, Ottó Pintér, Ágnes Domokos, Kristina Langnaese, István Barna, Mario Engelmann, and Dóra Zelena

HPA axis at this time point. During lactation, female rats undergo numerous neuromorphological, neuroendocrine, metabolic, and behavioral changes, which favor beneficial interactions with the offspring. The modifications of the HPA axis include an

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P C Lisboa, E de Oliveira, A C Manhães, A P Santos-Silva, C R Pinheiro, V Younes-Rapozo, L C Faustino, T M Ortiga-Carvalho, and E G Moura

, Toste et al . 2006 a , b , Bonomo et al . 2008 , Moura et al . 2008 , de Moura et al . 2009 ) and environmental factors ( Oliveira et al . 2009 , Santos-Silva et al . 2011) during lactation. Thyroid dysfunction is associated with important

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Gustavo Canul-Medina, Leticia Riverón-Negrete, Karina Pastén-Hidalgo, Paulina Morales-Castillo, Francisco García-Vázquez, and Cristina Fernandez-Mejia

Introduction Female physiology is modified during pregnancy and lactation to meet the nutritional demands of the fetus and the neonate. The increased glucose requirements of the developing infant require major adjustments in glucose

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Isabela Teixeira Bonomo, Patrícia Cristina Lisboa, Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos, Simone Bezerra Alves, Adelina Martha Reis, and Egberto Gaspar de Moura

lactation, and future functional state is called programming ( Lucas 1994 , Barker 2004 , de Moura & Passos 2005 ). Lactation is a critical period because in this phase important cognitive and neurological development occurs, which suggests that adverse

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Isabela Teixeira Bonomo, Patricia Cristina Lisboa, Analaura Ribeiro Pereira, Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos, and Egberto Gaspar de Moura

Introduction Our group has shown that adverse situations during lactation, such as malnutrition and hormonal changes, could permanently affect the nutritional and hormonal status of the progeny ( Passos et al. 2000 , 2002 , 2004