storage in healthy WFA. Extracellular Ca 2+ influx is implicated in the processes of fat storage ( Arruda & Hotamisligil 2015 ): lipolysis ( Schimmel 1978 , Izawa et al. 1983 , Allen & Beck 1986 ) and lipogenesis ( Avasthy et al. 1988 ). Indeed
Olena A Fedorenko, Pawitra Pulbutr, Elin Banke, Nneoma E Akaniro-Ejim, Donna C Bentley, Charlotta S Olofsson, Sue Chan and Paul A Smith
Nailliw Z Preite, Bruna P P do Nascimento, Cynthia R Muller, Anna Laura V Américo, Talita S Higa, Fabiana S Evangelista, Carmen L Lancellotti, Felipe dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista Jr, Antonio C Bianco and Miriam O Ribeiro
single ARβ knockouts, it is well accepted that lipolysis and adaptive thermogenesis are mediated via ARβ 1 and ARβ 3 , while the ARβ 2 subtype plays only a minor role in these processes ( Mattsson et al . 2011 , Ueta et al . 2012 , Fernandes et al
Rita Sharma, Quyen Luong, Vishva M Sharma, Mitchell Harberson, Brian Harper, Andrew Colborn, Darlene E Berryman, Niels Jessen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, John J Kopchick, Vishwajeet Puri and Kevin Y Lee
Introduction Although growth hormone (GH) has been primarily studied for its effects on linear growth, pronounced stimulation of lipolysis was among the first metabolic effects reported in human subjects following the introduction of pituitary
Samira Fargali, Thomas Scherer, Andrew C Shin, Masato Sadahiro, Christoph Buettner and Stephen R Salton
( Bray & York 1998 , Friedman & Halaas 1998 , Fan et al . 2000 , Li et al . 2003 ). Norepineprine, released from sympathetic nerve endings, stimulates lipolysis in WAT and increases thermogenesis in BAT via activation of β-adrenergic receptors
Wang-Yang Xu, Yan Shen, Houbao Zhu, Junhui Gao, Chen Zhang, Lingyun Tang, Shun-Yuan Lu, Chun-Ling Shen, Hong-Xin Zhang, Ziwei Li, Peng Meng, Ying-Han Wan, Jian Fei and Zhu-Gang Wang
, Lee et al. 2012 , 2014 ). Despite thermogenesis, β3AR expression and β3AR-mediated lipolysis have been documented in human visceral adipocytes ( Lonnqvist et al. 1993 , 1995 , De Matteis et al. 2002 , Lafontan & Berlan 2003 , Yehuda
Dan Wang, Chu-Dan Liu, Meng-Li Tian, Cheng-Quan Tan, Gang Shu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Lin Zhang and Yu-Long Yin
intestine includes two aspects, cytoplasmic lipolysis and autophagic lipolysis which is termed lipophagy ( Singh et al. 2012 , Young et al. 2013 ). Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the first rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis and evidence showed
D. R. LANGSLOW and C. N. HALES
The effects on lipolysis of various compounds have been studied in intact chicken adipose tissue and in isolated fat cells prepared from chicken adipose tissue. Glucagon stimulated lipolysis at concentrations down to 1 ng./ml. in intact pieces and 0·1 ng./ml. in isolated fat cells. The effect was enhanced by high concentrations of insulin. No anti-lipolytic effect of insulin was observed. Adrenaline, noradrenaline, porcine corticotrophin (ACTH) and long-acting ACTH were lipolytic but the effects were small and high concentrations were required. The adrenaline effect was blocked by propranolol hydrochloride. Dibutyryl 3′,5′-(cyclic)-AMP and theophylline stimulated lipolysis as did a combination of crude chicken growth hormone and hydrocortisone sodium succinate. It was concluded that the pattern of response of chicken adipose tissue was markedly different from that of the rat.
A I Martín, E Castillero, M Granado, M López-Menduiña, M A Villanúa and A López-Calderón
fat stores is not well known. Fat mass loss can be secondary to an increase in lipolysis and/or a decrease in lipogenesis. Lipolysis in WAT is under hormonal control, where the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is the main regulatory pathway in rodent
R. C. STRANGE and G. I. M. SWYER
The lipolytic activity of human placental lactogen (HPL) was measured using adipose tissue pieces and free fat-cell suspensions. HPL in non-physiological concentrations stimulated lipolysis after a latent period of 2 h. The preincubation of tissue pieces with HPL in physiological concentrations (8 μg/ml) increased the rate of theophylline-stimulated lipolysis.
C. J. LOVELL-SMITH and J. G. T. SNEYD
Isolated fat cells from young New Zealand obese mice (NZO/Bl) showed an impaired rate of glycerol release in response to isoprenaline. Old animals showed an increased rate of glycerol release.
The impaired lipolysis in young animals may be caused by failure of the adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate level to rise normally when isolated fat cells are treated with isoprenaline. It is proposed that the impaired lipolysis in young NZO/Bl mice is important in the development of obesity.