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Rick van der Geest, Ronald J van der Sluis, Albert K Groen, Miranda Van Eck and Menno Hoekstra

compared to non-diseased mice (4.25 ± 0.38 × 10 9 /L vs 7.52 ± 0.35 × 10 9 /L; P  < 0.001). The decrease in total leukocyte numbers found in response to ANIT treatment was exclusively related to a 50% decrease ( P  < 0.001) in blood lymphocyte numbers

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R Otton, FG Soriano, R Verlengia and R Curi

The occurrence of DNA fragmentation in lymphocytes obtained from alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diabetic patients was investigated. A high proportion of apoptotic lymphocytes in diabetic states may explain the impaired immune function in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes were analysed for DNA fragmentation by using flow cytometry and agarose gel, and for chromatin condensation by Hoescht 33342 staining under different situations. Immediately after being obtained, the proportion of lymphocytes with fragmented DNA was twofold higher in alloxan-induced diabetic rats than in cells from control rats. After 48 h in culture, the occurrence of DNA fragmentation was also higher (81%) in cells from diabetic rats. Hoescht staining and fragmented DNA visualized in agarose gel were also higher in lymphocytes from alloxan-induced diabetic rats than in control cells. To investigate if this phenomenon also occurs in humans, blood lymphocytes from 14 diabetic subjects were examined. Similar results to those of rat lymphocytes were found in cells from diabetic patients immediately after being obtained and after 48 h in culture. The high occurrence of apoptosis in lymphocytes was accompanied by a reduced number of blood-circulating lymphocytes in diabetic patients. The involvement of low insulinaemia for the occurrence of apoptosis in lymphocytes was also examined. Insulin treatment markedly reduced the proportion of lymphocytes with fragmented DNA in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

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K L Gustafsson, K H Nilsson, H H Farman, A Andersson, V Lionikaite, P Henning, J Wu, S H Windahl, U Islander, S Movérare-Skrtic, K Sjögren, H Carlsten, J-Å Gustafsson, C Ohlsson and M K Lagerquist

, have been shown to be involved in the estrogenic regulation of bone mass, including T lymphocytes ( Kong et al . 1999 ). Pacifici et al. have shown that mice lacking T lymphocytes are protected from bone loss caused by ovariectomy (ovx) (i

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Louise Grahnemo, Caroline Jochems, Annica Andersson, Cecilia Engdahl, Claes Ohlsson, Ulrika Islander and Hans Carlsten

Introduction Glucocorticoids are frequently used for the treatment of noninfectious and autoimmune inflammation as, amongst other mechanisms, they can suppress lymphocytes ( Chantler et al . 2003 , Busillo & Cidlowski 2013 ). Prolonged use of

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P Delva, M Degan, M Trettene and A Lechi

lymphocytes in order to shed light on the cellular mechanisms involved in these processes. Material and Methods Reagents The Ficoll-Histopaque reagent was obtained from Sigma Chemical, as were the RPMI 1640, BSA free

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R Otton, Mendonca JR and R Curi

An enhanced susceptibility to infections is well known to occur in a poorly controlled diabetic state. Since glucose and glutamine are essential for lymphocyte function, we investigated whether their metabolism is changed in lymphocytes obtained from mesenteric lymph nodes of alloxan-induced diabetic rats (40 mg/kg body weight). The activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), citrate synthase and phosphate-dependent glutaminase were determined. Decarboxylation of metabolites [U-14C]-, [1-14C]- and [6-14C]-glucose, [1-14C]- and [2-14C]-pyruvic acid, [U-14C]-palmitic acid and [U-14C]-glutamine was evaluated in incubated lymphocytes isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. The measurements were carried out in cells following three experimental protocols: (1) lymphocytes freshly obtained from control and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, (2) lymphocytes from insulin-treated (2 U/rat per day) diabetic rats and (3) lymphocytes obtained from control and diabetic rats and cultured in the presence of insulin (1 mU/ml) for 6 h. The activities of hexokinase, G6PDH and citrate synthase were decreased by the diabetic state, whereas that of phosphofructokinase was raised. Decarboxylation of [U-14C]- and [6-14C]-glucose, [1-14C]- and [2-14C]-pyruvate and [U-14C]-glutamine were also decreased in lymphocytes from diabetic rats, whereas [U-14C]-palmitic acid decarboxylation was increased. Insulin administration in vivo or added to the culture medium reversed the changes observed in freshly obtained lymphocytes. Alloxan-induced diabetes did change lymphocyte metabolism and this may be an important mechanism leading to impairment of lymphocyte function.

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C Dosiou, A E Hamilton, Y Pang, M T Overgaard, S Tulac, J Dong, P Thomas and L C Giudice

prevalent in pregnancy and in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle ( Kalo-Klein & Witkin 1989 ). Lymphocyte proliferation in response to Candida albicans has been shown to be the greatest in the second week of the menstrual cycle and the lowest in

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J Shaik Mohamed and I A Khan

expression in tissues of the immune system, such as lymphocytes, has not been reported in any non-mammalian vertebrate. The red drum is an economically important aquaculture species belonging to the family Sciaenidae and order Perciformes, the largest

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Alicia J Klecha, Ana M Genaro, Gabriela Gorelik, María Laura Barreiro Arcos, Dafne Magalí Silberman, Mariano Schuman, Silvia I Garcia, Carlos Pirola and Graciela A Cremaschi

( Pawlikowski et al. 1994 ). Interactions between pituitary–thyroid hormones and the immune system are mainly based on the existence of receptors for thyreotropic and thyroid hormones on lymphocytes or on the frequent immune alterations observed in

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Toshihiro Takao, Chizuru Kumagai, Naoko Hisakawa, Reiko Matsumoto and Kozo Hashimoto

Introduction It has become apparent over the past few decades that estrogens can affect cells of the immune system and may play a role in modulating lymphocyte development and function ( Smithson et al. 1998 , Grimaldi et al