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Masahiro Ogawa, Tomoya Kitakaze, Naoki Harada, and Ryoichi Yamaji

muscle mass in young female mice ( Ihemelandu 1981 ). We previously reported that E 2 replacement decreases the muscle mass in young OVX mice ( Ogawa et al . 2011 ). However, the mechanism by which E 2 decreases skeletal muscle mass in young females is

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A M Solomon and P M G Bouloux

elucidated ( Martel et al. 2006 ). Sarcopenia The term sarcopenia (the loss of muscle mass and strength during ageing) is Greek-derived meaning ‘lack of flesh’, and may co-exist with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Measurement and clinical

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Mark E Cleasby, Pauline M Jamieson, and Philip J Atherton

are further exacerbated by the marked loss of skeletal muscle mass that can also be associated with these conditions ( Park et al. 2009 , Kim et al. 2010 ). Specifically, loss of muscle mass induces a 2–3% decline in basal metabolic rate per

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Laura D Brown

protein synthetic rate ( Waterlow 1984 , Tipton et al . 2003 ), it has been proposed that greater muscle mass and increased energy expenditure from muscle protein turnover may contribute to the prevention of obesity ( Newsholme 1978 , Wolfe 2006

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Nele Cielen, Nele Heulens, Karen Maes, Geert Carmeliet, Chantal Mathieu, Wim Janssens, and Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez

measured by liquid-phase radioimmunoassay. Muscle mass The soleus, extensor digitorum longus (EDL), and gastrocnemius muscles from both hindlimbs were weighed and mass of left and right muscles was summed and presented in the Results section

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Ryan Paul, Kim Whiteman, Shelley J Falconer, Jenny M Oldham, Ferenc Jeanplong, Kenneth G Matthews, Heather K Smith, Mark Thomas, Trevor Watson, and Christopher D McMahon

Introduction Male mammals generally have a larger body size and muscle mass than females and, in mice, this arises from a faster rate of growth of muscle and bone before epiphysial closure ( Griffin & Goldspink 1973 , Callewaert et al

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Eileen I Chang, Paul J Rozance, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Leanna M Nguyen, Steven C Shaw, Robert A Sclafani, Kristen K Bjorkman, Angela K Peter, William W Hay Jr, and Laura D Brown

Introduction Two distinct phases of myogenesis in utero establish fetal skeletal muscle mass. After the scaffold of primary myofibers is established during the embryonic period, secondary myogenesis occurs from the proliferation and fusion

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O Schakman, H Gilson, and J P Thissen

to preserve muscle mass and function in patients exposed to high doses of glucocorticoids. Role of glucocorticoids in muscle atrophy of wasting conditions Many pathological conditions characterized by muscle atrophy (sepsis, cachexia, starvation

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Melissa F Jackson, Dung Luong, Dor Dor Vang, Dilip K Garikipati, James B Stanton, O Lynne Nelson, and Buel D Rodgers

Introduction The aging process is the physiological accumulation of changes over time and is unfortunately associated with increased disease susceptibility. Sarcopenia, the age-related and progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function

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Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Marcos C Carreira, Angelo Cignarelli, Annalisa Natalicchio, and Francesco Giorgino

Introduction Age-related muscle wasting and sarcopenia are characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass with a gradual decline in muscle function, including a decrease in power-producing capacity, contraction, and relaxation, but also by