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Alan G Watts

( Harris 1955 b ). This review argues that Harris's framework was built solidly on the rapidly developing neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the time and was perhaps an early sign that neuroendocrinology could dovetail with the then embryonic discipline of

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Nilli Zmora, Ten-Tsao Wong, John Stubblefield, Berta Levavi-Sivan and Yonathan Zohar

Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are neuropeptides co-expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus and coordinately control GnRH signaling. We have found that Nkb and kisspeptin neurons are distinct in the teleost, striped bass (STB) and capitalized on this phenomenon to study the mode of action of Nkb and its related neuropeptide-F (Nkf), both of which are encoded by the tac3 gene. In vitro brain slices and in vivo administration studies revealed that Nkb/f consistently downregulated kiss2, whereas antagonist (AntD) administration restored this effect. Overall, a minor effect was noted on gnrh1 expression, whereas Gnrh1 content in the pituitaries was reduced after Nkb/f treatment and increased with AntD. Concomitantly, immunostaining demonstrated that hypothalamic Nkb neurons border and densely innervate the largest kiss2 neuronal population in the hypothalamus, which also coexpresses Nkb receptor. No expression of Nkb receptor or Nkb neuronal projections was detected near/in Gnrh1 soma in the preoptic area. At the level of the pituitary, however, the picture was more complex: both Nkb/f and AntD upregulated lhb and fshb expression and Lh secretion in vivo. Together with the stimulatory effect of Nkb/f on Lh/Fsh secretion from pituitary cells, in vitro, this may indicate an additional independent action of Nkb/f within the pituitary, in which the hypothalamic pathway is more dominant. The current study demonstrates that Nkb/f utilizes multiple pathways to regulate reproduction in the STB and that in the brain, Nkb mainly acts as a negative modulator of kiss2 to regulate the release of Gnrh1.

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Christine Margaret Whitelaw, Jane Elizabeth Robinson, Peter Mark Hastie, Vasantha Padmanabhan and Neil Price Evans

Surge . Endocrinology 136 3452 – 3460 . doi:10.1210/en.136.8.3452 . Chaillou E Tramu G Tillet Y 1999 Distribution of galanin immunoreactivity in the sheep diencephalon . Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 17 129 – 146 . doi:10.1016/S

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Elaine de Oliveira, Egberto G Moura, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Cíntia R Pinheiro, Natalia S Lima, José Firmino Nogueira-Neto, Andre L Nunes-Freitas, Yael Abreu-Villaça, Magna C F Passos and Patrícia C Lisboa

. 2005 ). Western blotting analysis The hypothalamus was isolated using the coordinates established by the Atlas of Neuroanatomy: with Systems Organization and Case Correlations ( Warner 2001 ). To obtain cell extracts, hypothalamic tissues were

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Clive W Coen

neuroendocrine neuroanatomy (see this issue: Watts 2015 ). In 1971, Harris received the Dale Medal from the Society for Endocrinology and delivered the Sir Henry Dale Lecture in London on May 27. On June 24, at the meeting of the Endocrine Society in San

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J L Nobre, P C Lisboa, A P Santos-Silva, N S Lima, A C Manhães, J F Nogueira-Neto, A Cabanelas, C C Pazos-Moura, E G Moura and E de Oliveira

Bradford method. Western blotting analysis for hypothalamic leptin receptor and adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase Hypothalamus was isolated using the coordinates established by the Atlas of Neuroanatomy: with Systems Organization and Case Correlations ( Warner

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Edouard G A Mills, Waljit S Dhillo and Alexander N Comninos

-0552 Hrabovszky E 2014 Neuroanatomy of the human hypothalamic kisspeptin system . Neuroendocrinology 99 33 – 48 . ( https://doi.org/10.1159/000356903 ) 10.1159/000356903 24401651 Hrabovszky E Ciofi P Vida B Horvath MC Keller E Caraty A Bloom SR Ghatei

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Christoph Melcher, Ruediger Bader and Michael J Pankratz

)–(H) Schematic summary of hugin neuroanatomy depicting the results of clonal analysis of single hugin neurons (taken from Bader et al. 2007 ). Relative positions of olfactory centers (comprising mushroom bodies and antennal lobes) are shown in brown and

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F Wahab, M Shahab and R Behr

Briant C 2008 Kisspeptin immunoreactive neurons in the equine hypothalamus Interactions with GnRH neuronal system . Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 36 131 – 137 . ( doi:10.1016/j.jchemneu.2008.07.008 ) Denis RG Williams G Vernon RG

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Nadia Schoenmakers, Kyriaki S Alatzoglou, V Krishna Chatterjee and Mehul T Dattani

2015 Thyroid hormone and the developing hypothalamus . Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 9 15 . ( doi:10.3389/fnana.2015.00015 ) Alkemade A Friesema EC Kalsbeek A Swaab DF Visser TJ Fliers E 2011 Expression of thyroid hormone transporters