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Jennifer H Stern, Gordon I Smith, Shiuwei Chen, Roger H Unger, Samuel Klein and Philipp E Scherer

Introduction Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) is characterized by both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia and is a key risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although abnormalities in insulin action have been

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Rebecca M Reynolds and Adrienne Gordon

Background Within the current global crisis of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ), women of reproductive age represent a group with the steepest rises in obesity rates over recent decades ( NCD Risk Factor Collaboration 2016 ). In the United Kingdom

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Haiming Cao

Introduction In the past two decades, the world has seen a sustained increase in obesity, and the levels of overweight and obese persons worldwide have reached epidemic proportions ( Finucane et al . 2011 ). It is well established that obesity

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S J Brandt, M Kleinert, M H Tschöp and T D Müller

Introduction Obesity is a devastating condition of pandemic dimensions. In 2015, there were 107.7 million obese children and 603.7 million obese adults worldwide ( Afshin et al. 2017 ), and this number is expected to rise. Overweight and

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Ivana Vaněčková, Lenka Maletínská, Michal Behuliak, Veronika Nagelová, Josef Zicha and Jaroslav Kuneš

Introduction There is no doubt that the prevalence of obesity and the associated cardiovascular diseases has increased dramatically around the world in the last decade. Current assessment indicates that more than one billion people in the world are

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Ding Xie and Wendy B Bollag

It is well known that obesity is associated with a number of metabolic end organ dysfunctions, including hypertension. However, less well understood is the mechanism by which obesity leads to elevated blood pressure. Various hypotheses have

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Jin-Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, Haijun Zhao, Alexander W Alund and Kartik Shankar

and to program gene expression in key metabolic pathways, such as fatty acids and glucose metabolism ( Levin & Govek 1998 , King 2006 , Shankar et al . 2008 , Geraghty et al . 2016 ). Emerging evidence suggests that maternal obesity caused by

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Clara Lefranc, Malou Friederich-Persson, Roberto Palacios-Ramirez and Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat

Introduction Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease with an ever-increasing prevalence. Excessive and ectopic fat accumulation leads to adverse health effects and reduced life span. Obesity is originally defined by the BMI (BMI = weight

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Mirian A Kurauti, José M Costa-Júnior, Sandra M Ferreira, Gustavo J dos Santos, André O P Protzek, Tarlliza R Nardelli, Luiz F de Rezende and Antonio C Boschero

Introduction Hyperinsulinemia is often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( Kahn et al. 2006 ). Chronic hyperinsulinemia impairs insulin receptor function, leading to insulin resistance ( Kanety et al. 1994

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Kayte A Jenkin, Lannie O'Keefe, Anna C Simcocks, Esther Grinfeld, Michael L Mathai, Andrew J McAinch and Deanne H Hryciw

Introduction The prevalence of obesity and the subsequent adverse effects of associated co-morbidities has risen significantly in recent years, placing a substantial financial and social burden on societies worldwide ( Ng et al . 2014