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Jennifer H Stern, Gordon I Smith, Shiuwei Chen, Roger H Unger, Samuel Klein, and Philipp E Scherer

Introduction Obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) is characterized by both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglucagonemia and is a key risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Although abnormalities in insulin action have been

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Zhengxiang Huang, Lili Huang, Chengjian Wang, Shanli Zhu, Xinzhou Qi, Yang Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Michael A Cowley, Johannes D Veldhuis, and Chen Chen

Introduction Hormonal disturbance, in either secretion amount or function, often occurs in parallel with impairment of glucose/lipid/protein metabolism in obesity. Two pivotal hormones, insulin and growth hormone (GH), which synergistically

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Rebecca M Reynolds and Adrienne Gordon

Background Within the current global crisis of obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ), women of reproductive age represent a group with the steepest rises in obesity rates over recent decades ( NCD Risk Factor Collaboration 2016 ). In the United Kingdom

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S J Brandt, M Kleinert, M H Tschöp, and T D Müller

Introduction Obesity is a devastating condition of pandemic dimensions. In 2015, there were 107.7 million obese children and 603.7 million obese adults worldwide ( Afshin et al. 2017 ), and this number is expected to rise. Overweight and

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Ding Xie and Wendy B Bollag

It is well known that obesity is associated with a number of metabolic end organ dysfunctions, including hypertension. However, less well understood is the mechanism by which obesity leads to elevated blood pressure. Various hypotheses have

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Haiming Cao

Introduction In the past two decades, the world has seen a sustained increase in obesity, and the levels of overweight and obese persons worldwide have reached epidemic proportions ( Finucane et al . 2011 ). It is well established that obesity

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Kayte A Jenkin, Lannie O'Keefe, Anna C Simcocks, Esther Grinfeld, Michael L Mathai, Andrew J McAinch, and Deanne H Hryciw

Introduction The prevalence of obesity and the subsequent adverse effects of associated co-morbidities has risen significantly in recent years, placing a substantial financial and social burden on societies worldwide ( Ng et al . 2014

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Jin-Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, Haijun Zhao, Alexander W Alund, and Kartik Shankar

and to program gene expression in key metabolic pathways, such as fatty acids and glucose metabolism ( Levin & Govek 1998 , King 2006 , Shankar et al . 2008 , Geraghty et al . 2016 ). Emerging evidence suggests that maternal obesity caused by

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Clara Lefranc, Malou Friederich-Persson, Roberto Palacios-Ramirez, and Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat

Introduction Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease with an ever-increasing prevalence. Excessive and ectopic fat accumulation leads to adverse health effects and reduced life span. Obesity is originally defined by the BMI (BMI = weight

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Xiao-Bing Cui, Jun-Na Luan, Jianping Ye, and Shi-You Chen

Introduction Obesity is an important independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and it is associated with high morbidity and mortality ( Friedman 2003 ). Although a range of therapies have been developed, these