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R Dobie, V E MacRae, C Huesa, R van't Hof, S F Ahmed, and C Farquharson

insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) production and autocrine/paracrine (local) actions via the osteoblast GH-receptor (GHR). In addition, local GH actions may be indirect (IGF1 dependent) or direct (IGF1 independent) ( Isgaard et al . 1986 , 1989 , Le

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Chandrika D Mahalingam, Bharat Reddy Sampathi, Sonali Sharma, Tanuka Datta, Varsha Das, Abdul B Abou-Samra, and Nabanita S Datta

Introduction Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between bone-building osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts, a process known as bone remodeling ( Feng & McDonald 2011 , Kular et al . 2012 ). Age-related bone loss is associated with

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Therese Standal, Rachelle W Johnson, Narelle E McGregor, Ingrid J Poulton, Patricia W M Ho, T John Martin, and Natalie A Sims

pathway may aid in the design of improved anabolic therapies. The effects of PTH on bone mass are likely to be mediated by cells of the osteoblast lineage. This lineage includes committed pre-osteoblasts, matrix-producing osteoblasts, bone lining cells

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Koichiro Komatsu, Akemi Shimada, Tatsuya Shibata, Satoshi Wada, Hisashi Ideno, Kazuhisa Nakashima, Norio Amizuka, Masaki Noda, and Akira Nifuji

-forming cells. N-BPs stimulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts at low concentrations. At high concentrations, N-BPs inhibit proliferation and bone nodule formation ( Giuliani et al . 1998 , Reinholtz et al . 2000 ). It has also been pointed

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Michela Rossi, Giulia Battafarano, Viviana De Martino, Alfredo Scillitani, Salvatore Minisola, and Andrea Del Fattore

Introduction In healthy skeleton, the bone structure is maintained by the balanced relationship between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These cells are responsible for the bone remodelling that begins with the recruitment and activation of bone

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Lucie E Bourne, Caroline PD Wheeler-Jones, and Isabel R Orriss

-collagenous proteins, growth factors and glycoproteins. The mineral component of bone is hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH 2 )) which is formed from inorganic phosphate (PO 4 3- or P i ) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) ions. Osteoblasts, which are derived from mesenchymal

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Jin-Ran Chen, Oxana P Lazarenko, Haijun Zhao, Alexander W Alund, and Kartik Shankar

/mL) and glutamine (4 mM). α-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 1 mM ascorbyl-2-phosphate (Sigma-Aldrich) and 4 mM l -glutamine was used as osteoblast (OB) differentiation medium, while α-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS was used as control medium. Cell RNA from

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P A Hill and A Tumber

the removal of bone by osteoclasts and the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. Up to 65% of osteoblasts that originate at the remodelling site die by apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), a process common to several regenerating tissues ( Jilka

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Hiroki Saito, Tomoya Nakamachi, Kazuhiko Inoue, Ryuji Ikeda, Kazuo Kitamura, Naoto Minamino, Seiji Shioda, and Atsuro Miyata

fibrocartilaginous template is replaced by calcified bone in a chondrocyte-dependent process. On the other hand, during intramembranous bone formation in calvaria, chondrocytes are not involved and bone is laid down directly by osteoblasts derived from mesenchymal

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M Alexandra Sorocéanu, Dengshun Miao, Xiu-Ying Bai, Hanyi Su, David Goltzman, and Andrew C Karaplis

cells can give rise to all major skeletal tissues, such as cartilage, myelosupportive stroma, and fibrous connective tissue as well as associated adipocytes and osteoblasts, the bone forming cells ( Friedenstein et al. 1968 , Owen 1988 , Kuznetsov