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Louise Grahnemo, Caroline Jochems, Annica Andersson, Cecilia Engdahl, Claes Ohlsson, Ulrika Islander and Hans Carlsten

without glucocorticoid treatment, these women have a high risk of developing osteoporosis; approximately 20% of women in Europe over 50 years of age are affected by postmenopausal osteoporosis. The lifetime fracture risk in these women is over 45

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Bernard Freudenthal, John Logan, Sanger Institute Mouse Pipelines, Peter I Croucher, Graham R Williams and J H Duncan Bassett

Introduction A novel strategy for osteoporosis gene discovery Studies of human monogenic extreme phenotype disorders have been instrumental in discovering genetic and molecular mechanisms of common diseases including obesity and diabetes

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P. L. Selby and R. M. Francis

In the 40 years or so since Albright & Reifenstein (1948) noted the association of osteoporosis with hypogonadism in both females and males, much has been learnt about the actions of hormones on bone and the endocrine causes of osteoporosis. Whilst subsequent work has underlined the importance of sex steroids in the maintenance of skeletal integrity, it is apparent that osteoporosis is multifactorial in origin and that non-hormonal factors are also involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss.

Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mass in the skeleton, associated with an increased risk of fracture. The bone mass at any age, and therefore the risk of fracture, is determined by three variables: the bone mass at maturity, the age at which bone loss commences and the rate at which it proceeds (Riggs & Melton, 1986). The peak bone mass at maturity is regulated by sex, race, other genetic

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Wang Xiao, Fei Beibei, Shen Guangsi, Jiang Yu, Zhang Wen, Huang Xi and Xu Youjia

Introduction Primary type I osteoporosis, also known as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), is a bone disease associated with reduced bone mineral density, disordered bone architecture and increased fragility ( Chinese Orthopaedic Association 2009

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Kenichi Serizawa, Kenji Yogo, Yoshihito Tashiro, Satoshi Takeda, Ryohei Kawasaki, Ken Aizawa and Koichi Endo

Introduction In postmenopausal women, the risk of cardiovascular event and osteoporosis increases due to diminishing circulating levels of estrogen. Endothelial dysfunction is a powerful surrogate marker of cardiovascular events ( Widlansky et al

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Richard C Lindsey, Catrina Godwin and Subburaman Mohan

Introduction Osteoporosis, a debilitating condition in which an increase in bone resorption is not adequately compensated by a corresponding increase in bone formation, leading to net loss of bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration

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Claire L Wood, Ondrej Soucek, Sze C Wong, Farasat Zaman, Colin Farquharson, Lars Savendahl and S Faisal Ahmed

-induced osteoporosis (GIO) and growth retardation. Osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in bone mass and loss of bone microarchitecture, leading to impaired bone strength and increased fracture risk ( Reinwald & Burr 2008 ). GIO is the most prevalent type of

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Saranyapin Potikanond, Pinyada Rattanachote, Hiranya Pintana, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Nipon Chattipakorn and Siriporn Chattipakorn

) resulted in impairment of osteoblastic insulin signaling, decreased osteoblastic proliferation, increased osteoblastic apoptosis, and can lead to osteoporosis in the jaw bone ( Pramojanee et al . 2013 ). Preclinical and clinical studies have reported that

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H. M. BRUCE and A. S. PARKES

Gross deformities appeared in Xenopus laevis maintained for about 2 yr. under laboratory conditions on a diet containing no live food. Radiographs of the affected animals revealed defective calcification of the skeleton. All animals bred in the colony were defective, and only the original adults taken from the wild had normal bones. A description of the different types of skeleton found, and later produced experimentally, is given. An analysis of the conditions under which the defects became manifest showed X. laevis to be very susceptible to lack of vitamin D. Calcification in this species is greatly affected by the nature of the basal food. Normal bones are formed when the toads are fed on a diet of rabbit liver (or ox liver) supplemented with cod-liver oil and calcium. Horse liver is toxic, causing a depression of growth and a failure of calcification even with the supplements. With guinea-pig muscle a far larger supplement of vitamin D is required to prevent the development of general calcium deficiency and to permit normal bone formation. The failure of calcification is identified as rickets with osteoporosis and its relation to these diseases in other species is discussed.

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Miskal Sbaihi, Karine Rousseau, Sylvie Baloche, François Meunier, Martine Fouchereau-Peron and Sylvie Dufour

Introduction Osteoporosis is a major disease affecting human bone. It is commonly divided into primary osteoporosis, which is an inheritable metabolic bone disease, and secondary osteoporosis, which is caused by endocrinological disorders and drugs