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Rebecca McGirr, Leonardo Guizzetti and Savita Dhanvantari

L cells, and by the primary and secondary structures of proglucagon. The prohormone processing enzyme carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is expressed in both alpha and L cells, while PC1/3 is found in L cells and PC2 in alpha cells. Several lines of evidence

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AJ Stouthart, EC Lucassen, FJ van Strien, PH Balm, RA Lock and SE Wendelaar Bonga

Whole-body levels of ACTH, alpha-MSH and cortisol in eggs and larvae of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were determined periodically up until 168 h after fertilisation. ACTH, alpha-MSH and cortisol immunoreactivity was detected in unfertilised eggs, and endogenous production of ACTH and alpha-MSH was observed 24 h after fertilisation and that of cortisol 36 h after fertilisation. ACTH immunoreactivity reached peak levels before hatching (56-72 h after fertilisation) and remained relatively stable thereafter, while alpha-MSH immunoreactivity started to increase after hatching. At 36 h after fertilisation, whole-body cortisol levels increased rapidly reaching peak levels at the end of hatching (72 h after fertilisation), remaining stable until the end of the experiment. From 50 h after fertilisation onwards, embryos and larvae increased their whole-body cortisol levels when subjected to handling (mechanical pressure during egg stage or netting during the larval stage). It is concluded that the pituitary-interrenal axis in carp is fully functional at the time of hatching. No indications of a stress non-responsive period after hatching were observed. To characterise ACTH and alpha-MSH immunoreactivities in carp larvae, whole-body homogenates were analysed by HPLC, with pituitary homogenates of adult carp serving as a reference. ACTH and alpha-MSH immunoreactivity in carp larvae homogenates consisted of three and two products respectively. HPLC of adult carp pituitaries revealed the presence of two ACTH immunoreactive products, which may represent a phosphorylated and a non-phosphorylated ACTH variant, while the three alpha-MSH peaks most likely represent des-acetylated, mono-acetylated and di-acetylated alpha-MSH, the latter being the predominant form. In carp larvae, however, one of the ACTH immunoreactive products co-eluted with the non-phosphorylated ACTH, while the two alpha-MSH products identified co-eluted with des-acetylated and mono-acetylated alpha-MSH, indicating that POMC processing at this stage of development is different from prohormone processing in adult fish.

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Niamh X Cawley, Guida Portela-Gomes, Hong Lou and Y Peng Loh

performed by Kex2, a subtilisin-like serine protease, it was speculated that yapsins may be backup enzymes for the serine proteases involved in prohormone processing. Mammalian aspartic proteases with similar properties to the yapsins have been characterized

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Sang-Nam Lee, Bonnie Peng, Roxane Desjardins, John E Pintar, Robert Day and Iris Lindberg

& Chronwall 1992 ). Thus, POMC expression is controlled differently in the two lobes of the pituitary. Previous data obtained using the PC2 and 7B2 null mouse models have shown that both nulls show defective prohormone processing in vivo ( Furuta et

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Wenxia He, Xiangyan Dai, Xiaowen Chen, Jiangyan He and Zhan Yin

of various hormones, growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and molecules known to be involved in prohormone processing, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 ( gnrhr2 ), androgen receptor ( ar ), progesterone receptor ( pgr ), estrogen

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A Alidibbiat, C E Marriott, K T Scougall, S C Campbell, G C Huang, W M Macfarlane and J A M Shaw

for prohormone processing through expression of the specific endoproteases PC1/3 and PC2; intracellular storage of pre-formed hormone and rapid calcium-gated secretion. In the current studies, PC1/3 expression was not detected in AR42J cells before or

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Rafaela Fadoni Alponti, Patricia Lucio Alves and Paulo Flavio Silveira

lysine aminopeptidase activities in chromaffin granules of bovine adrenal medulla: relevance to prohormone processing . Journal of Neurochemistry 70 153 – 163 . ( doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998.70010153.x ) Zambotti-Villela L Yamasaki SC Villarroel

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I Sadaf Farooqi and Stephen O'Rahilly

'Rahilly S 1997 Obesity and impaired prohormone processing associated with mutations in the human prohormone convertase 1 gene [see comments] . Nature Genetics 16 303 – 306 . ( doi:10.1038/ng0797-303 ) Krude H Biebermann H Luck W Horn R

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Chia-Lei Lin, Lyda Williams, Yoshinori Seki, Harpreet Kaur, Kirsten Hartil, Ariana Fiallo, A Scott Glenn, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron and Patricia M Vuguin

Comparative Physiology 297 R835 – R843 . ( doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00072.2009 ) Furuta M Yano H Zhou A Rouille Y Holst JJ Carroll R Ravazzola M Orci L Furuta H Steiner DF 1997 Defective prohormone processing and altered pancreatic islet

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Bogdan A Danalache, Calvin Yu, Jolanta Gutkowska and Marek Jankowski

) Mitchell BF Fang X Wong S 1998 Oxytocin: a paracrine hormone in the regulation of parturition? Reviews of Reproduction 3 113 – 122 . ( doi:10.1530/ror.0.0030113 ) Morris M Castro M Rose JC 1992 Alterations in oxytocin prohormone processing