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Christina Corre, Gen Shinoda, Hao Zhu, Diana L Cousminer, Christine Crossman, Christian Bellissimo, Anna Goldenberg, George Q Daley and Mark R Palmert

Introduction Women tend to be shorter than men, and girls have their growth spurt at an earlier phase in puberty than boys ( Styne & Grumbach 2012 ). Girls also experience puberty at younger ages than boys and are more likely to exhibit precocious

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Rodolfo C Cardoso, Bruna R C Alves, Ligia D Prezotto, Jennifer F Thorson, Luis O Tedeschi, Duane H Keisler, Marcel Amstalden and Gary L Williams

demonstrated to delay puberty ( Kennedy & Mitra 1963 , Kennedy 1969 , Foster & Olster 1985 , Kile et al . 1991 ), whereas increased adiposity accelerates reproductive maturation in mammals ( Frisch & McArthur 1974 , Lee et al . 2007 , Castellano et al

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M J Vazquez, I Velasco and M Tena-Sempere

The neurobiological basis of puberty in mammals Puberty is a complex maturational phenomenon that drives the individual from an immature to a fully mature stage, when the capacity to reproduce is achieved. While the multifaceted nature of

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William L Dees, Jill K Hiney and Vinod K Srivastava

Introduction The time at which puberty begins is the culmination of a series of events within the hypothalamus that results in the increased pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion. This change in LHRH

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Romain Fontaine, Eirill Ager-Wick, Kjetil Hodne and Finn-Arne Weltzien

, ontogeny and regulation of Lh cells. In medaka, Lh cells have been found to participate in the plasticity of the pituitary during puberty through hypertrophy and estrogen-sensitive hyperplasia during puberty ( Fontaine et al . 2019 ). Lh cells have also

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William Zawatski and Mary M Lee

relating to EDC exposure and male pubertal timing. Male pubertal development Puberty is an important parameter of reproductive health, marking the sexual maturation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis that culminates in adult hormonal profiles

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Xiaonan Yan, Chun Yuan, Nannan Zhao, Yugui Cui and Jiayin Liu

( Franks 2012 ). Peripubertal reproductive and metabolic dysfunctions, including anovulation, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia, are present in adolescents with PCOS before the onset of puberty and persist during pubertal

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K A Chan, M W Tsoulis and D M Sloboda

regulate the production of GNRH and LH/FSH ( Popat et al . 2008 ). It is not until puberty that GNRH pulsatility is sufficient to induce ovulation of late-antral or fully-grown follicles ( Kawagoe & Hiroi 1983 , Grumbach 2002 , Russell & Robker 2007

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A. L. Ogilvy-Stuart and S. M. Shalet

In a child, puberty encompasses a series of events which include the completion of growth and the maturing of the reproductive system. One of the common hormonal links between these two processes is growth hormone (GH) and, although it has been known for some time that the reproductive axis influences GH secretion and growth, increasing interest is developing in the alternative possibility of GH modifying reproductive processes.

In the normal child, there is an increase in GH secretion from mid-childhood with a shift in periodicity and an increase in pulse amplitude (Hindmarsh, Mathews & Brook, 1988). The two- to threefold rise in GH secretion during puberty is a product of the increase in pulse amplitude over the prepubertal value (Martha, Rogol, Veldhuis et al. 1989; Delemarre-van de Waal, Wennink & Odink, 1991). GH pulse amplitude is increased during early puberty in girls and at a later stage in boys, corresponding

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Allison R Foilb, Patina Lui and Russell D Romeo

caregivers to a state of relative independence and sexual maturity ( Spear 2010 ). Though puberty and adolescence have some chronological overlap, puberty is a relatively discrete physiological event, signaling the onset of adolescence, associated with